REFERENCES

Akaike, H. (1973): “Information Theory and an Extension of the Maximum Likelihood Principle.” B. N. Petrov and F. Csaki (eds.), 2nd International Symposium on Information Theory: 267‑81.  Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.

Arntzenius, Frank  (1993): “The Common Cause Principle.”  PSA 1992 Volume 2: 227-237. East Lansing, Michigan:  Philosophy of Science Association.

Arntzenius, Frank  (1995): “A Heuristic for Conceptual Change,” Philosophy of Science 62:  357-369.

Arntzenius, Frank  (1997): “Transition Chances and Causation.”  Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 78:  149-168.

Barnes, Eric (1991): ‘Beyond Verisimilitude: A Linguistically invariant basis for scientific progress’, Synthèse 88, 309-339.

Bell, John S. (1964). “On the Einstein‑Podolsky‑Rosen Paradox”, Physics 1: 195-200.

Busemeyer, J. R. and Yi-Min Wang (2000):  “Model comparisons and model selections based on generalization test methodology,” Journal of Mathematical Psychology 44: 177-189.

Butterfield, H. (1962):  The Origins of Modern Science.  New York, NY:  The Macmillan Company.

Butts, Robert E. (ed.) (1989). William Whewell: Theory of Scientific Method. Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis/Cambridge.

Cartwright, Nancy (1983): How the Laws of Physics Lie.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, I. Bernard (1985):  The Birth of a New Physics, Revised and Updated Edition.  W. W. Norton & Company, New York.

Cramér H. (1946):  Mathematical Methods of Statistics. Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press.

D’Abro, A. (1951), The Rise of the New Physics. Volume One, Classical Physics. New York:  Dover Publications.

Earman, John (1992):  Bayes or Bust? A Critical Examination of Bayesian Confirmation Theory, The MIT Press, Cambridge.

Forster, Malcolm R. (1986a):  Unification and Scientific Realism Revisited.”  In Arthur Fine and Peter Machamer (eds.), PSA 1986.  E. Lansing, Michigan:  Philosophy of Science Association.  1: 394‑405.

Forster, Malcolm R. (1986b):  “Statistical Covariance as a Measure of Phylogenetic Relationship.”  Cladistics 2: 297‑317.

Forster, Malcolm R. (1988a),  Unification, Explanation, and the Composition of Causes in Newtonian Mechanics.”  Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 19: 55 ‑ 101.

Forster, Malcolm R. (1988b): “Sober’s Principle of Common Cause and the Problem of Incomplete Hypotheses.”  Philosophy of Science 55: 538‑59.

Forster, Malcolm R. (1994):  “Non-Bayesian Foundations for Statistical Estimation, Prediction, and the Ravens Example.”  Erkenntnis 40: 357 - 376.

Forster, Malcolm R. (2000): “Key Concepts in Model Selection: Performance and Generalizability,” Journal of Mathematical Psychology  44: 205-231.

Forster, Malcolm R. (2002), “Predictive Accuracy as an Achievable Goal of Science,” Philosophy of Science 69: S124-S134.

Forster, Malcolm R. and Elliott Sober (1994):  How to Tell when Simpler, More Unified, or Less Ad Hoc Theories will Provide More Accurate Predictions.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45: 1 - 35.

Forster, Malcolm R. and Elliott Sober (2004a), ‘Why Likelihood?,’ in Mark Taper and Subhash Lele (eds), Likelihood and Evidence, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press

Forster, Malcolm R. and Elliott Sober (2004b): ‘Reply to Boik and Kruse,’ in Mark Taper and Subhash Lele (eds), Likelihood and Evidence, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press

Friedman, Michael (1983):  Foundations of Space‑Time Theories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Geman, Stuart, E. Bienenstock and René Doursat (1992): “Neural Networks and the Bias/Variance Dilemma.”  Neural Computation 4: 1‑58.

Gibbs, J. Willard (1902; reprinted 1981),  Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, Woodbridge, Conn.: Ox Bow Press.

Giedymin, Jerzy (1970), “The Paradox of Meaning Variance”.  British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 21: 257-268.

Glymour, Clark (1980). “Explanations, Tests, Unity and Necessity.” Noûs 14: 31‑50.

Good, I. J. (1975): “Comments on David Miller.” Synthèse 30: 205‑206.

Goodman, Nelson  (1965):  Fact, Fiction and Forecast, Second Edition, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass.

Harman, Gilbert (1965). “Inference to the Best Explanation.” Philosophical Review LXXIV, pp.88‑95.

Harper, William L. (2002), “Howard Stein on Isaac Newton:  Beyond Hypotheses.”  In David B. Malament (ed.)  Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court. 71‑112.

Harper, William, Stalnaker, Robert, & Pearce, G. (1981), Ifs, The University of Western Ontario Series in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 15, D. Reidel.

Harré, Rom (1981):  Great Scientific Experiments.  Oxford: Phaidon Press.

Hempel, Carl G. (1965): Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. New York: The Free Press.

Hempel, Carl G. (1966): Philosophy of Natural Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hitchcock, Christopher R. (1996):  “The Common Cause Principle in Historical Linguistics,” Philosophy of Science 65: 425-447.

Holton, G. and D. H. D. Roller (1958), Foundations of Modern Physical Science, Reading, MA; Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

Khinchin, A. I. (1949),  Mathematical Foundations of Statistical Mechanics, translated from the Russian by G. Gamov, New York: Dover Publications.

Kieseppä, I. A. (1997):  “Akaike Information Criterion, Curve-fitting, and the Philosophical Problem of Simplicity.”  British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48: 21-48.

Kochanski, Zdzislaw (1973): “Conditions and Limitation of Prediction‑Making in Biology.”  Philosophy of Science 40: 29-50.

Kruse, Michael (1997):  “Variation and the Accuracy of Predictions.”  British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48: 181-193.

Kuhn, Thomas S. (1957), The Copernican Revolution, Harvard University Press.

Kuhn, Thomas (1970): The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Second Edition.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

Kullback, S. and R. A. Leibler (1951), “On Information and Sufficiency”, Annals of Mathematical Statistics 22: 79‑86.

Lakatos, Irme (1970): ‘Falsificationism and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes’. in I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge.  Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, pp. 91-196.

Langley, P, H. A. Simon, G. L. Bradshaw, & J. M. Zytkow (1987). Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Process.  MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Marion, Jerry B. (1965), Classical Mechanics of Particles and Systems, Academic Press, New York and London.

Marr, David. (1982). Vision.  W. H. Freeman & Co., New York.

Miller, David (1974): ‘Popper’s Qualitative Theory of Verisimilitude’, British Journal for Philosophy of Science 25, pp. 166‑77.

Miller, David (1975): ‘The Accuracy of Predictions,’ Synthèse 30, pp. 159‑191.

Miller, David (1975a): ‘The Accuracy of Predictions: A Reply’, Synthèse 30, pp. 207‑219.

Musgrave, Alan (1974):  “Logical Versus Historical Theories of Confirmation.”  The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25: 1‑23.

Musgrave, Alan (1979):  “How to Avoid Incommensurability.” In I. Niiniluoto and R. Tuomela (eds.) The Logic and Epistemology of Scientific Change.  Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., pages 336-346.

Myrvold, Wayne (2003), “A Bayesian Account of the Virtue of Unification”, Philosophy of Science 70: 399-423.

Niiniluoto, Ilkka (1987):  Truthlikeness,  Kluwer Academic Publishing: Dordrecht.

Niiniluoto, Ilkka (1998):  ‘Verisimilitude: The Third Period’, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49, pp. 1-29.

Oddie, Graham (1986):  Likeness to the Truth, The University of Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science, Kluwer Academic Publishing: Dordrecht.

Oddie, Graham (1996): ‘Truthlikeness’, in Donald M. Borchert (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Supplement, Macmillan Reference: New York, U. S. A.

Popper, Karl (1959):  The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Hutchinson.

Popper, Karl (1963):  Conjectures and Refutations, Routledge and Kegan Paul: London.

Priest, Graham (1976):  “Gruesome Simplicity.”  Philosophy of Science 43: 432 - 437.

Priest, Graham (2001):  An Introduction to Non-Classical Logic.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

Reichenbach, Hans (1938): Experience and Prediction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Reichenbach, Hans (1956): The Direction of Time. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Reidy, Michael S. and Malcolm R. Forster (forthcoming), “William Whewell (1794-1866),” in Thomas Hockey (ed.), Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Resnick, R.: 1972, Basic Concepts in Relativity and Early Quantum Theory, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Rosenkrantz, Roger D. (1980): “Measuring Truthlikeness,” Synthèse 45: 463-487.

Rumelhart, David E., McClelland, J.  et al (1986):  Parallel Distributed Processing, Volumes 1 and 2. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Shamos, M. H. (ed) (1959), Great Experiments in Physics: Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein,  Dover Publications Inc., New York.

Sneed, Joseph D. (1971):  The Logical Structure of Mathematical Physics. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

Sober, Elliott (1988):  “The Principle of Common Cause.” In J. Fetzer (ed.), Probability and Causality, pp.211‑28.  Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Stone, M. (1977): An Asymptotic Equivalence of Choice of Model by Cross-Validation and Akaike’s Criterion.”  Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B 39: 44-47.

Tichý, Pavel (1974): ‘On Popper’s Definitions of Verisimilitude’, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 25, pp. 155‑160.

Tichý,  Pavel (1976): ‘Verisimilitude Redefined’, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27, pp. 25‑42.

Urbach, Peter (1983), ‘Imitations of Similarity: The shaky basis of verisimilitude’, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34, pp. 266-275.

van Fraassen, Bas (1980),  The Scientific Image, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Whewell, William (1858): Novum Organon Renovatum, Part II of the 3rd the third edition of The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, London, Cass, 1967.

White, Roger (2003), “The Epistemic Advantage of Prediction over Accommodation.”  Mind 112: 653-683.

Williams, P. M. (1980): “Bayesian Conditionalization and the Principle of Minimum Information.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 31: 131‑144.

Wilson, Kenneth G. (1971),” Renormalization Group and Critical Phenomena: II Phase Cell Analysis of Critical Phenomena,” Physical Review B, 4, 3184-3205.

Zwart, Sjoerd D. (1998): Approach to the Truth: Verisimilitude and Truthlikeness, Institute for Logic, Language, and Computation (ILLC) Dissertation Series, 1998-02.