Dan Hausman
5197 H. C. White Hall

Hadley Cooney
5160 Helen C. White


Greg Nirschberg
5174 Helen C. White


Office Hours: Tues. 2:30-3:30; Wed. 2:30-3:30
Office Hours: Wed. 9-11 Office Hours: Mon 11-12; Tues. 1-2





Philosophy 341 Syllabus


Although one cynical reaction to the world around us is to think of morality as empty words, the actions of individuals and even of whole societies are nevertheless influenced by moral judgments. (Have you never been influenced by concerns about whether what you are doing is right or wrong? -- and if you have, why suppose that others haven't?) Furthermore (although further cynical qualms are possible here), our moral judgments concerning actions and social policies are influenced by reasoning and argument.

This course will give us the opportunity to think deeply about four controversial and difficult moral issues: 1) surrogate motherhood, 2) abortion, 3) inequalities of income, wealth, and health, and 4) health care. In addition, to provide some perspective and depth in our consideration of the particular issues, we shall spend some time with ethical theory.

Course Goals:

The overall goal is to enable all members of the class to reflect on their views and through this reflection and the criticisms of others to reach better articulated and justified conclusions. This requires both cultivation of skills of argumentation and criticism and familiarity with the considerations that support different sides of these issues. More specifically the course aims:

1. To provide some solid knowledge of the moral arguments concerning surrogate motherhood, abortion, inequalities, and health care. By providing this knowledge the course should help you to develop and to deepen your own views on these matters and to see through simplistic and shallow arguments. The moral arguments you will be studying should challenge your convictions or permit you to refine them.

2. To provide an introduction to moral argument and to moral theory in general: This course should help you to see how rational argument in morality works and to appreciate the force and limits of such arguments. The course should also help you to appreciate what moral theory is, how it can be important in your life and in society in general, how it can be valid and powerful, even though not always capable of producing consensus.

3. To provide an introduction to the nature of argument and of informal logic in general: To appreciate what can be said concerning moral issues such as abortion, one must be able to tell the difference between good and bad arguments, and one needs to be able to present and criticize arguments effectively. To the extent that this course helps you to make and criticize arguments, it should be valuable for you, quite apart from its particular subject matter.

4. To help you to develop your abilities to present and to criticize arguments both in discussion and, in particular, in writing: Every good essay, regardless of the subject matter, is an extended argument for some thesis or conclusion. The only thing special about philosophy essays is the extent to which one focuses upon the logic of the argument. This course should help you to write more sharply organized, focused and effective essays.It is hard to separate bad writing and sloppy thinking.

The extent to which these course goals can be achieved is, of course, largely up to you, but it is important that you appreciate what the teaching assistant and I are trying to accomplish. If you cannot see how any particular lecture or reading assignment relates to the goals of the course, ask about it. In abstract matters it is especially important and especially difficult to be clear on what the point is. Keep asking "So what?" Since this course is more concerned with mastering skills than with acquiring information, it demands your active participation, and I think that the interest and importance of the issues we will be addressing will reward that participation.

What this course does not aim to do:

1. This course does not aim to provide pat answers to questions such as "Is abortion morally permissible?" It is not Sunday School. I don’t intend to preach, and if I get carried away, I hope you’ll jump on me. I have my own views concerning the issues, and in some cases, I feel confident that I've got some good answers. Yet I shall not be concerned to convert anybody. What is important in the course is intellectual honesty and the sort of perseverance that makes one struggle to bring one's convictions and the weight of argument into accord. The course should help you rationally to make up your own mind concerning surrogate motherhood, abortion, inequalities, and health care, and it will not espouse a set of "correct" positions.

2. This course does not aim to provide a thorough or precise introduction to moral theory. Although you should learn some moral theory, the subject is a deeper one than it might appear from the introductory material we will consider.

Note: Students are encouraged to discuss problems concerning the teaching of this course with the instructor and/or your TA. If students wish to pursue a complaint with someone else, they should contact Jesse Steinberg, Assistant to the Chairperson, Philosophy Department, 5185 H.C. White Hall, 263-5162.

All of the course readings will be available electronically on the Learn@UW site for the course. Please download each of the readings and print it. You'll grasp the material much better if you read a printed version than if you try to read it on a computer or tablet screen.


Students may use computers in class only with special permission from the instructor. Computers often distract students and diminish involvement, and subtle philosophical distinctions and arguments cannot be understood while keeping up with Facebook traffic.

Cell Phones:

It should go without saying that these should be stowed and off during class.
Course Web Site:

In addition to the learn@uw site, there is a public web site for the course: http://philosophy.wisc.edu/hausman/341/Fall2014/341Fall2014.htm. You will find useful documents there.

I STRONGLY urge you to download and print out the essays that are posted on the Learn@UW site. You will have a more difficult time mastering the material, if you attempt to read the essays on your computer. Moreover, if you do not print them out, you will not be able to refer to the readings during lecture.

Students with disabilities:

I hope to make this course as accessible as is feasible to anyone with a disability. Please let me know as early in the course as possible if you need accommodations in the curriculum, instruction, or assessments in this course to enable you to participate fully. I will attempt to maintain confidentiality of any information you share with me.

Course Requirements:

There will be two essays, a quiz, a midterm, homework assignments, five-minute essays (attendance credit or penalty), and a final examination. Your semester grade will depend on the essays (50%), the quiz (5%), the midterm (10%), the final (25%), the homeworks (10%), and the five-minute essays and section attendance (extra credit or penalty)

LECTURES Attendance at lecture is optional, but the five minute essays provide you with a strong incentive either to attend regularly, or to keep up with lectures by writing a precis of each lecture you miss. See below for the details.I welcome questions and comments during lecture.

DISCUSSION SECTIONS Section attendence is also optional, but if you miss no more than two discussion sections during the semester, you will receive one point of extra credit toward your semester point total, and if in addition you are an active and helpful contributor to discussions in section you will receive a point of extra credit. (You thus have the possibility of earning two points of extra credit from regular attendance coupled with active and helpful contributions.)

INTRODUCTORY PAPER The introductory essay should be no more than 1000 words in length. It counts for 10% of your semester grade. It is designed to give you an opportunity to try your hand at writing a philosophy essay without the anxiety of having much of your grade depend on the result. It counts for only ten percent of your grade. A first version is due promptly at the beginning of class on Tuesday, September 231, and a revised version is due one week later, Tuesday, September 30.Your grade depends entirely on the revised version, but if you do not hand in a preliminary version on time, there will be a full grade penalty.

TERM PAPER The term paper counts for 40% of your semester grade. It should be no more than 1800 words and it is due at the beginning of class on Thursday, November 6. The term paper is due fairly early in the semester in order to make it possible for you to rewrite it and to submit a revised version. Unlike the introductory paper, the first version you hand in will be graded. Revising the paper is optional. The optional revision is due on Thursday, December 4. If you submit a revised version, your grade will be the average of your grades on the two versions.

DEBATES We will begin the consideration of each of the four issues with which this course is concerned with a debate on that issue. Those who actually participate in the debates will receive credit for the initial homework assignment on the issue debated and on two additional homework assignments, provided that they do a competent job in the debate. See below for further information about the debates.

QUIZ It will be concerned with logic and surrogate motherhood, and will be held on Thursday, September 25. It will count for 5% of your semester grade.

MIDTERM It will be held on Thursday, October 23 and will focus on Kant and abortion.

FINAL EXAMINATION The final examination will be cumulative, though it will emphasize material that comes after the midterm.

HOMEWORK (hand in in lecture to Dan Hausman, not to your TA)


WARNING!! Philosophy challenges complacency and demands rigorous thinking. It’s hard to know what the truth is concerning hard questions like the ones we will be addressing this semester.
Course Outline:

Tuesday, September 2: Introduction: discussion of the goals, structure and requirements of the course; discussion of the notion of what is morally right and of the distinction between facts and values.

Thursday, September 4: Is morality a matter of opinion or social consensus?

D. Hausman and M. McPherson, "What Are Moral Questions and How Can They Be Answered?"
Steven Pinker, "The Moral Instinct"

Tuesday, September 9: Conclusions on the nature of morality and discussion of arguments and informal logic

Steven Pinker, "The Moral Instinct"
D. Hausman,   "Skill Sheet: Good and Bad Arguments"

*Thursday, September 11: Debate: Resolved that contracts whereby a surrogate mother agrees to bear and to give up a child in exchange for a fee ought to be as legally binding as is any other contract.

John Locke, Chapter 2 "Of the State of Nature" of his Second Treatise of Government
J.C.S. Sorkow, Opinion in the "Baby-M" Case
Katha Pollitt, "The Strange Case of Baby M,"
Opinion of the New Jersey Supreme Court

Homework #1 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words (one or two typed pages--but it doesn't have to be typed) stating your "initial" view of whether surrogate motherhood contracts ought to be legally binding. Give what seems to you to be the strongest argument in support of your initial view and try to make the argument as clear and logical as possible. Explain what reservations one might have concerning your argument and your position.

*Tuesday,September 16: Individual rights and the limits of government: Where do natural rights come from? What determines their scope? To what extent do they depend on matters of social expediency? Does permitting or banning surrogate motherhood contracts increase individual freedom? Does either policy violate individual rights?

John Locke, Chapter 2 "Of the State of Nature" of his Second Treatise of Government
J.C.S. Sorkow, Opinion in the "Baby-M" case

Homework #2 due. Write a brief essay of roughly 300 words analyzing the following argument:

Provided that the parties are competent and sign voluntarily, surrogate motherhood contracts should be legally binding, because they do not call on the parties to do anything illegal. All contracts between competent individuals that are voluntarily signed and that do not call on the parties to do anything illegal should be legally binding.

Formulate this argument explicitly as a logically valid argument. (Write it out with numbered premises.) Then discuss whether it is sound. This homework assignment is something of a "dry run" for the introductory paper.

Thursday, September 18: Qualms about surrogacy: What is right under ideal circumstances versus what is right under actual circumstances. Is there a conflict here in our understanding of individual liberty?

Katha Pollitt, "The Strange Case of Baby M"
Opinion of the New Jersey Supreme Court

*Tuesday, September 23: On the limits of contracts and of natural rights--conclusions on surrogate motherhood

First version of introductory paper is due

Read "Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis" by Ruth Macklin, which is posted on learn@uw. In this essay Macklin distinguishes between on the one hand arguments condemning or defending the practice of surrogacy, regardless of whether surrogates are paid and, on the other hand, arguments criticizing or defending commercial surrogacy. Your task is to focus on just one of the several arguments she makes (which are themselves often responses to arguments others have made), reformulate her argument as a logically valid argument, and then discuss whether it is sound.

Though the precise structure of your paper is up to you, and different papers might not have the same structure, one sensible way to proceed would be to start by stating that Macklin is concerned with a number of arguments concerning surrogacy (or specifically commercial surrogacy) and that you are concerned with just one of those arguments. Some context for the argument may be required. After providing that context, it is a good idea to quote the relevant passage before offering your reconstruction of Macklin's argument. Be sure to defend your reconstruction as faithful to Macklin's words. Then turn to the question of whether the argument is sound.

Papers should be individual work, not the result of collaboration. What is most important in an essay is your thinking and your arguments.  The point is to make an honest and persuasive case.  You should believe in what you are writing. When you refer to Macklin's essay (or to anything else), make sure that your references are clear.. Footnotes are not necessary. Page references to readings inserted in the text are fine. I do not expect you to read anything in addition to the required readings on surrogate motherhood and Macklin's essay. But you are, of course, free to read more. If you rely on any other texts, be sure to make clear references to your sources.

Late papers will be penalized unless you speak with me or your TA before the due date.  Please note the following specific requirements and suggestions:

The point of the introductory paper assignment is to enable you to have a try at writing an analytical paper.  Do not be discouraged if the paper is difficult to write well. (It probably will be hard.) Our job is to teach you how to tackle assignments such as this one. You cannot learn to swim without getting in the water.

You have until next Tuesday, September 30) to revise and improve your essay. I will read a short portion of the draft you hand in today (9/23) and by the end of the week will post in the grade book on learn@uw either "OK" or "U" . "U" means that the writing in the paper is unsatisfactory and if the version of the paper handed in on September 30th has not been repaired, it will be returned for further revisions and marked down. "OK" means that the small portion examined seems okay. An "OK" is not a judgment that as a whole the writing in the paper is satisfactory and does not preclude the possibility that the version you hand in on the 30th will be returned for revisions and marked down. If you discuss your essay with a classmate or with anyone else, be sure to acknowledge any help you've received when you hand in the revised version. You do not need to change the version you hand in today, but you have the opportunity to improve the paper before your TA or I grade it.

We are serious about requiring clear and grammatical writing, and we have high standards. Be sure to be simple and direct. Read your work with care.

*Thursday, September 25: Quiz on logic and surrogate motherhood.
*Tuesday, September 30: Debate #2: Resolved that abortion ought to be legal only in circumstances where continuing a pregnancy would lead to the death of the pregnant woman.

Roe v. Wade
Mary Anne Warren, "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion"
Don Marquis, "Why Abortion Is Immoral"
Judith Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion"
Baruch Brody, "Opposition to Abortion: A Human Rights Approach"
Immanuel Kant, "The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals"

Revised introductory paper due

Thursday, October 2: On rights and persons: What is a person? Do only persons have rights? Why do persons have rights? How can we decide which rights a person has?

Immanuel Kant, "The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
Roe v. Wade

Homework #3 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words criticizing the argument concerning abortion that you personally find most persuasive. The task is to play "Devil's Advocate" and to try to lay bare, as far as possible, any weakness in your own position.

Tuesday, October 7: Abortion: Is a fetus a person? What is the relationship between mental capacities and being a person? What determines whether something has a right to life?

Mary Anne Warren, "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion"

Thursday, October 9: Avoiding rights

Don Marquis, Why Abortion is Immoral

Homework #4 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words addressing the question of whether someone who believes that abortion should generally be illegal can consistently make an exception for the cases of rape or incest.
*Tuesday, October 14: If a fetus is a person does it follow that abortion ought to be illegal?

Judith Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion"

*Thursday, October 16: Is killing an innocent human being always impermissible? Abortion and the doctrine of double effect.

Baruch Brody, "Opposition to Abortion: A Human Rights Approach"

Homework #5 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words contrasting Brody's example of the lifeboat to Thomson's example of the violinist. What do you think most people's intuitions would say about the two cases? What are your own intuitions? Are these intuitions consistent? How can they be explained?

Tuesday, October 21: Review and catch up

Thursday, October 23: Midterm

*Tuesday, October 28: Debate: Resolved that government policies, including tax policies, should aim to lessen inequalities in wealth and income.

"Inequalities Data"
Dan Hausman, "Some Notes on Utilitarianism"
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (excerpts)
Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (excerpts)
Dan Hausman and Michael McPherson, "Some Notes on Libertarianism"
Will Wilkinson, "Thinking Clearly about Economic Inequality"
Laim Murphy and Thomas Nagel, Excerpts from The Myth of Ownership: Taxes and Justice
Joel Feinberg, "Economic Income as Deserved"
Gregory Mankiw, "Defending the One Percent"
Elizabeth Anderson, "How Not to Complain About Taxes (III): "I deserve my pretax income"

Homework #6 Due: Write an informal essay of 300-500 words stating your "initial" view of whether the government should aim to lessen inequalities in wealth and income. Give what seems to you to be the strongest argument in support of your initial view and try to make the argument as clear and logical as possible. Explain what reservations one might have concerning your argument and your position.

*Thursday, October 30: Inequalities -- How large and how disturbing

"Inequalities Data"
Will Wilkinson, "Thinking Clearly about Economic Inequality"

*Tuesday, November 4: Inequalities and Moral Theory (I) Utliitarianism

Dan Hausman, "Some Notes on Utilitarianism"

Homework 7: Write a 300 to 500-word informal essay discussing how a utilitarian would approach surrogate motherhood or abortion and what conclusion the utilitarian would draw.

Thursday, November 6: Inequalities and Moral Theory (II) Rawls' Theory of Justice

John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (excerpts)

Term Paper Due

Read Jane English's essay, "Abortion and the Concept of a Person" (available on the learn@uw site) and think carefully about her argument that abortion is generally morally permissible early in pregnancy and impermissible late in pregnancy regardless of whether or not a fetus is a person, and her further argument that abortion should be legal.. Your task in the paper is then to write an essay developing and assessing her argument. You may want to write a paper that attempts to refute English's argument or that defends her argument, or you might argue for a more nuanced conclusion concerning its strengths and weaknesses. Although your essay will probably have implications for whether abortion is morally permissible and whether it should be legal, your focus should be on Englilsh's argument, not on the permissibility of abortion.

Please note the following:

  1. Your paper must have a definite point --it must attempt to establish some specific claim concerning English's argument. Don't think of your paper as directly defending or criticizing the legality of abortion.
  2. Your paper must be logically organized as an argument for your thesis. Be sure to think hard about objections to your point of view and about how to respond to them. You can draw on other sources, and I would expect most of the papers to draw on the arguments and distinctions drawn in the readings and in lecture, but this is meant to be an analytical rather than a research paper.
  3. Term papers should be individual work, not collaborative efforts. They should be about 1800 words long -- about six double-spaced pages. They should be printed double-spaced with a reasonably large font and at least 1" margins. Please do not put your name anywhere except on the sheet at the end.
  4. Term papers must be correct in their grammar, usage, punctuation, spelling and so forth. Sloppy papers will be returned ungraded, and your term-paper grade will then depend entirely on the grade on the revised version, which will in addition be marked down by two-minimal grades as a penalty (i.e. a B+ would become a B- a B would become a BC, or a C would become a D). The TA and I will be more lenient to those who are not native English speakers, but even they must produce minimally literate papers.
  5. Please attach a page at the end of your paper with your name, the title, and your TA's name. Papers will be read "blind."

If you have trouble with your writing, I encourage you to seek help in the writing lab. Your TA and I will be happy to help you with your papers, but because you have the option of rewriting them, we will not read and comment on rough drafts, and it is not our job to copy-edit your work..

Be sure to consult the general directions on writing philosophy papers near the end of the syllabus.

Tuesday, November 11: Libertarianism and justice

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (excerpts)
Dan Hausman and Michael McPherson, "Some Notes on Libertarianism"

Homework #8 due: Write a 300-500-word informal essay discussing whether we should care about equal opportunity and, if so, why we should care or, if not, why equal opportunity is not of moral importance.

Thursday, November 13: Assessing libertarianism

Laim Murphy and Thomas Nagel, Excerpts from The Myth of Ownership: Taxes and Justice

Homework #9 due: Write a 300-500-word informal essay discussing your own attitude toward libertarianism. What do you see as its most attractive and least attractive features? How plausible do you find it overall?

Tuesday, November 18: Desert and competition

Joel Feinberg, "Economic Income as Deserved"
Gregory Mankiw, "Defending the One Percent"
Elizabeth Anderson, "How Not to Complain About Taxes (III): "I deserve my pretax income"

Thursday, November 20: Debate: Resolved that the United States should institute a universal health-insurance system, whereby everyone has comprehensive health insurance, which is paid for via general tax revenue.

"Comparison of Canadian and U.S. health care systems"
Richard Wilkinson and Michael Marmot, "Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts"
Angus Deaton, "What does the empirical evidence tell us about the injustice of health inequalities?"
Norman Daniels, "Justice, Health, and Health Care"
Loren Lomasky, "Medical Progress and National Health Care"
Obamacare Summary
Henry Aaron and Joseph Newhouse, "Meeting the Dilemma of Health Care Access: Extending Insurance Coverage while Controlling Costs"
Grace-Marie Turner & James C. Capretta & Thomas P. Miller & Bob Moffit, "Getting Health Care Right"

Homework #10 due: Write a 300 to 500 word essay expressing your initial view about whether the government ought to ensure that all its citizens have adequate health insurance. What do you take to be the main argument in defense of your view? What do you take to be the main objections to your view, and how would you respond to them?

Tuesday, November 25: Justice, health and health care in the U.S. and elsewhere

"Comparison of Canadian and U.S. health care systems"

Thursday, November 27: Thanksgiving

Tuesday, December 2: Justice, equality, and health

Richard Wilkinson and Michael Marmot, "Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts"
Angus Deaton, "What does the empirical evidence tell us about the injustice of health inequalities?"

Thursday, December 4: Health care and equal opportunity

Norman Daniels, "Justice, Health, and Health Care"

Optional Revision of Term Paper Due

You must submit the original paper along with the revision and an explanation (no more than one page) of how you revised your essay. Only significant revisions will be graded. Revisions that merely fix some copy-editing will not be graded.

*Tuesday, December 9: Liberty, responsibility, and health care

Loren Lomasky, "Medical Progress and National Health Care"

Homework #11 due: Write an informal essay of 300-500 words explaining how your views on one of the issues discussed this semester changed and why they changed.

Thursday, December 11: Assessment of Obamacare

Obamacare Summary
Henry Aaron and Joseph Newhouse, "Meeting the Dilemma of Health Care Access: Extending Insurance Coverage while Controlling Costs"
Grace-Marie Turner & James C. Capretta & Thomas P. Miller & Bob Moffit, "Getting Health Care Right"


At the beginning of the discussion of each of the four issues with which the course in concerned, there will a debate on a specific resolution concerning the issue. To compensate participants in the debates for their efforts, they will receive credit for the homework assignment due on the date of the debate -- provided that they do a competent job in the debate. Debaters will also receive a second and third homework credit that I will apply at the end of the semester in whatever way is most advantageous to the student. There should be three debaters on each side. The debate team members will need to decide how to divide up and organize their presentation. These debates can be fun, and they valuable to the whole class, not just to the participants. Their success depends (of course) on you.

The format for the debates will be as follows: Each team will have ten minutes to fifteen minutes to make its case. The team-members may divide up the time or choose one or two speakers to express their position. Then the floor will be open to give and take between the two teams, and all the debaters will be expected to participate. If I think it useful, I may direct some questions to the teams at the beginning of the give-and-take session. There is no definite time limit to this second round, but I will break off the exchange at some point to permit questions and arguments from the audience.

number handed-in 11 10 9.5 9 8.5 8 7.5 7 < 7
grade A+ A AB B BC C D F F (0)
points (toward semester grade) 10 9.8 9.1 8.5 7.9 7.3 6.7 5.9 0

Five-Minute Essays:

By distributing to you brief and often provocative questions and giving you a few minutes to jot down your thoughts, these assignments encourage discussion.




Name of student whose notes were used:

Date of the lecture:

Topic of the lecture:

Readings discussed:

Precis of the lecture, including careful presentation of any explicitly formulated arguments.



Discussions are difficult to manage in a large class, but with such controversial and important issues we should strive for as much as possible. Don't be surprised if I call on you during lecture, especially if you sit near the back.This is not material to be passively absorbed, and I shall try to keep you involved thinking along with me. (There is, by the way, a clear correlation between how close to the front students sit and how high their grades are.)


If my office hours, (Tuesday 2:30-3:30; Wed. 2:30-3:30) are not convenient, see me after class to arrange another time to meet. My job is to help you to master the skills and material with which this course is concerned, so feel free to come see me.

The Use of Email:

Email can be a great convenience, but in a large class, it can get out of hand. Your TA will have his or her own guidelines, which you should be careful to respect. With respect to communicating with me, feel free to email me at dhausman@wisc.edu with any specific questions you have about substance, assignments or requirements. If the question and answer are relevant to others, I will post them anonymously on the course discussion page or send an email to the classlist. If you want to keep the discussion private, please let me know. Otherwise, in emailing me about any aspect of the course, you’ve given me permission to post your question. That way I can serve as many students as possible. Some questions are not appropriate. For example, "Could you please restate the last three lectures?" Also, please do not email me or your TA to ask when five-minute essays were distributed. You should instead get to know other students in the class whose notes you can consult if you are unable to attend. Some questions are of course better discussed in person than over email. I’ll do the best I can to be helpful.

A Note on Plagiarism:

Plagiarism is a serious offense, for which there is no excuse. All sources and assistance used in preparing your papers must be precisely and explicitly acknowledged. If you have any questions about what constitutes plagiarism, please come talk with me or with your TA. Ignorance of what constitutes plagiarism is not a defense. It is your responsibility to be sure. The web creates special risks. Cutting and pasting even a few words from a web page or paraphrasing material without a reference constitutes plagiarism. If you are not sure how to refer to something you find on the internet, you can always give the URL.  It is generally better to quote than to paraphrase from material on the web, because in the absence of page numbers it can be hard to find passages that are paraphrased rather than quoted. The minimum penalty for plagiarism -- even of just a phrase -- is a zero on the assignment.

In my experience, plagiarism usually happens because it is 3 a.m. on the morning when a paper is due. Your rough draft is going nowhere. You're exhausted and increasingly desperate. And you've come across an obscure web page that says pretty much what you've been trying to say. And ... well you can fill in the rest, perhaps even what happens when you get caught. This is the time to stop and go to bed. Much better to talk with me or your TA and get some help, take the mild penalty for not handing the paper in on time, and write a paper that gives you some satisfaction and that doesn't risk expulsion from the University.

Grading Scheme:

I am planning on employing the on-line gradebook on the Learn@UW web site.

Grade A+ A A- AB B+ B B- BC C+ C C- D F
Percentage (points) 98-100 95-97 92-94 89-91 86-88 83-85 80-82 77-79 74-76 71-73 68-70 60-67 0-59
Points below 60 60-68.9 69-74.9 75-80.9 81-86.9 87-92.9 93 and above
Semester Grade F D C BC B AB A

The Role of Readings in the Course:

I do not usually devote my lectures to the exposition and discussion of the readings (though I am happy to entertain questions about how my lectures relate to the readings). Although I will cite and criticize specific arguments from the readings, the lectures usually present an independent perspective on the issues. Critically engaging with the arguments in the lectures is your most important task, but you may have a hard time understanding my arguments or exactly how they are relevant if you do not study the readings carefully. I selected the readings to represent a variety of different perspectives, and even when the readings are mistaken (as, in one regard or another, they often are), there are valuable lessons to be learned from understanding their mistakes. The examinations will ask not only that you have mastered the material in the lectures but that you be able to relate the arguments in the lectures to the arguments in the readings and to respond intelligently to questions concerning the important arguments in the readings.

Some Hints on Reading Philosophy Papers:

Although you will not be able to understand completely the most difficult philosophical texts such as Kant's Groundwork, you should aim to master most of the readings, particularly those that address specific issues. Here are some detailed hints about how to do so:

1. Use your highlighter sparingly. It is much more useful to pencil in marginal notes summarizing or querying specific points than to highlight passages. Actively engaging the author is much more valuable than merely trying to assimilate the prose. And if you do highlight, only highlight a small percentage of the text. (There is not much point to highlighting everything, apart from adding color to the page!)

2. The assignments are usually short, and you should plan on reading the assignments at least twice. During the first reading you should ask yourself:

a. What is the author's position?

b. What is the general structure of the essay? Is it a collection of separate arguments, or does it aim to make one main argument?

c. What are the author's main assumptions? (Where is the author coming from?)

d. Against whom does the author take him/herself to be arguing? What is the context in which the piece was written?

e. What is the main line of argument (or what are the main lines of argument)?

f. What objections does the author address and how successful is the author in answering them?

g. How does the author's position relate to your views? To what extent does the author reinforce or challenge your views?

h. How do the author's arguments relate to the arguments developed in lecture and in other reading assignments? What criticisms would the author make of arguments developed in lecture or in other readings? To what extent is the position of the author open to criticisms made in lecture or in other readings?

During the second reading of the assignment, you should proceed more slowly and critically. Rather than asking, as suggested above, questions about what the author's purposes, organization, and argument are, you should try to assess all of these and particularly the author's arguments

General Directions on Writing the Papers

Style and references:

1. You are expected to give references when you cite detailed claims or arguments made in the readings, and your papers should, where appropriate, show familiarity with relevant materials from the lectures or reading for the course. But you are expected to write essays, not examination answers. So don't introduce irrelevant matters merely to demonstrate that you have done the course readings. (But you must not ignore relevant supporting arguments and, particularly, objections in the readings.) Cite the readings only when they are relevant. Be sure that your paper is a well organized argument for some clearly articulated thesis.

2. When you quote, paraphrase, or make use of a point made by others, be sure to document the source. Your reference style is not important. What matters is that your references be precise and usable. If you say that Pollitt says that contracts are worthless, it should be clear on what page Pollitt supposedly says that. The easiest way to give a reference is simply to put the source and page number in parenthesis. Papers without clear references (where needed) will be marked down.

3. Papers must be typed or printed double-spaced in a reasonably large font with wide margins (at least one inch) on all sides, so that there is plenty of room for marginal comments. Be sure to keep copies of your papers. Please do not use binders. There is no need for a separate title page.

4. Papers for the course must be essentially correct in their writing- spelling, punctuation, grammar, usage, typing, and so forth. Papers with more than 3 or 4 errors per page will be marked down, and if they are very messy, they will be returned for correction before they are graded and also penalized.First versions of term papers that are messy will not be graded at all. Your term-paper grade will then depend entirely on the revised version minus a double-minimal grade penalty. (What I mean by a minimal grade penalty is a penalty from a B- to a BC or from a B+ to a B. So a double-minimal penalty will lower your grade from, for example an A- to a B+ or from a B to a BC.) Messy and badly written papers are hard to assess; and it is not unfair to expect you to take responsibility for making sure that your papers are in minimally correct English. Although the TAs and I will make some allowances for non-native speakers, papers that are not reasonably well written will not receive a grade higher that a B. If you have writing difficulties, seek help in the writing lab and get someone to proofread your paper before you hand it in.

5. I have abridged and reprinted on the learn@uw site some principles of composition from Strunk and White's The Elements of Style. I urge you to read them before you start to write and then again when you have finished your rough draft.

Hints on essay writing:

1. The paper topics are not recipes for writing your essays. You have to decide what you want to maintain in your essays. Do not regard the paper topic as an essay examination question. Although your papers must be on the assigned topic, the point is to write a well-organized and unified argument for some clearly enunciated conclusion.

2. The task of writing a good essay is virtually identical with the task of thinking out a clear thesis or conclusion that you want to defend and then elaborating and defending it. You should be able to say clearly and precisely not only what your paper is about, but also what your paper maintains or shows. Be sure each of your papers has both a thesis--that it asserts something definite--and a logical organization. Once it is clear what you what to show, you will have a criterion to decide what is relevant and the basis for organizing your paper. Can you put your main point clearly in a sentence? Can you say clearly in a sentence what your paper shows or proves? Are all the parts of your paper relevant to your main point? Is the structure of your argument clear? No good essay merely summarizes things you have read and then offers your remarks or points of comparison or differences you noticed. Every acceptable essay integrates its remarks into an argument of its own. Exposition of the views of others should always be part of your argument for your thesis.

3. Note that a well-organized paper is not merely orderly. For example, a paper that argues that Thomson argues claims 1, 2, and 3 and that one can defend claim 1 as follows, claim 2 as follows, but not claim 3 is orderly, and it has a thesis. But it would only be well-organized--truly one paper rather than three--if the discussions of the three claims bore some relations to one another and if the paper added up to some unified and substantive thesis. A thesis like "Brody has some good things to say" is not detailed or substantive enough to hold a paper together.

4. Avoid first paragraphs that say things such as, "First I will discuss the views of Pollitt and Sorkow. Then I will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Then I will compare their conclusions and formulate my opinion." Passages such as these make it sound as if your argument will begin only on the last page. Exposition of the views of others has to find its place within your argument, not as a preface to your argument. If you think in terms of what you want to establish, and outline your paper in terms of stages in your argument, your essay will be much stronger.

5. Try to say exactly what you mean. Pay careful attention to your language. Sentences such as "Abortion is a mistaken principle" are unacceptably careless. (Abortion is a medical procedure, not a principle.) Value your words and use them accurately. Avoid putting section headings in your papers. The papers are not long enough to need them. Provide clear transitions from one paragraph to the next so that the reader knows where you are going without section headings.

6. Avoid what I call "the chicken passive." Students often write sentences such as "Letting people starve to death when one has extra food is generally considered to be wrong." My response is "By whom is it considered to be wrong? And why should we care about their opinion?" In most cases when students write sentences like this what they mean is "It is wrong to let people starve to death when one has extra food, but I'm afraid to come out and say what I think."

7. To help in organizing your thinking, you should attempt to answer the following three questions:

1. What is your thesis--that is, what is it that you are trying to maintain or show or prove? What is your main argument for your thesis?

2. What is the most important objection to or criticism of your thesis that you need to consider? Formulate that objection or criticism as an argument.

3. What is your argument in response to the objection or criticism mentioned in answer to question 2?

If you cannot answer these questions clearly and easily, then there are problems with your paper. Do not regard your papers as finished or acceptable until each clearly implies answers to the above questions. (But an essay is not, of course, a list of answers to any set of questions.) Taking the task of answering these questions seriously can make a big difference in the quality of your paper.

Some recommendations on how to write badly: (adapted from Martin Hassel  http://lacasahassel.net/cv/martin/howto.htm)

1.  Begin with a sentence that is clear and direct:

Katha Pollitt vigorously condemns surrogate motherhood.

2. Change its verbs, adjectives, and adverbs into abstract nouns:

Katha Pollitt presents a vigorous condemnation of the acceptability of surrogate motherhood.

3. Make the sentence passive:

A vigorous condemnation of the acceptability of surrogate motherhood is presented by Katha Pollitt.

4. Use two words where one would do:
A vigorous and strong condemnation and critique of the acceptability or legality of surrogate motherhood is presented by Katha Pollitt.

5. Use plenty of 'in regard to,' 'as to' and similar terms:

In regard to the acceptability or legality of surrogate motherhood under some circumstances, a vigorous and strong condemnation and critique thereof is presented by Katha Pollitt.

6. Sprinkle with words that do not add anything:

In regard to the fundamental or derivative acceptability of surrogate motherhood under or within some circumstances or situations, a specific vigorous and strong direct condemnation and forceful critique thereof can be found in writings by Katha Pollitt.

7. Use negatives:

In regard to the not-underivative acceptability or less-than universal legality of surrogate motherhood under or within some circumstances or situations, a not unspecific nor indirect nor weak or unvigorous condemnation and critique thereof can be found in writings by Katha Pollitt.

8. Repeat the preceding steps:

How awful can you make the sentence?

Special considerations in writing philosophical papers:

1. In a political debate, the point is to win, and one consequently tries to make the arguments of one's opponents sound as ridiculous and worthless as possible. In a philosophical debate (or in writing a philosophy essay), in contrast, the objective is to learn the truth. So you should try to make the arguments conflicting with your views as compelling as possible, before you answer them. If there are any objections to your position that you cannot answer, then you cannot be sure that you are right. Work hard at trying to see "the other side". (This is not to say that there are no mistakes and that both sides of every issue are always equally well supported. If the question was, "Should slavery be legal?" it is worth studying what can be said in the defense of slavery, even though there is in fact very little to be said in its defense.)

2. Although many sociological and economic facts are relevant to the issues you are addressing in your essays, be careful to keep your focus philosophical. If you aren't sure whether your papers are philosophical or not, check with me or with your TA.

Seeking help:

When working on the final versions of your essays, feel free to come to your teaching assistant or me for help. You do not need to do further research, but you can consult with us if you want references for further reading.

There are some excellent resources on the web for writing philosophy papers. After consulting the brief writing suggestions in on the learn@uw site, I particularly recommend:

UW-Madison Writer's Handbook This excellent handbook is produced by The Writing Center here. Highly recommended!

www.sfu.ca/philosophy/writing.htm This is brief, clear, and helpful.

http://www.princeton.edu/~jimpryor/general/writing.html Excellent, but much lengthier.

www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/philosophy.html For those who are serious about philosophy.

www.cofc.edu/~portmord/tips.htm Contains lots of references for further study.

A terrific general source on writing is Strunk and White's The Elements of Style. The first edition is available on the web at http://www.bartleby.com/141/

Paper grading criteria

An "A" paper typically has all of the following virtues, although in exceptional cases papers with five of the six virtues might merit an "A"

  1. It has a well-defined thesis and a logical organization.
  2. It shows good sense, intellectual honesty and struggle. It defends a defensible thesis and takes seriously objections to that thesis.
  3. It is well-informed. If there are passages in the assigned readings for the course that are particularly relevant to the matters under discussion in the essay, these are cited and discussed. The paper shows an awareness of conceptual distinctions and clarifications developed in the course.
  4. It is intelligent, logical, and careful. The argument is carefully articulated and developed. Obvious difficulties are anticipated and answered, and gaps are closed.
  5. It is significant. The issues discussed, although detailed, are of some importance, and the essay makes their importance clear.
  6. The paper is written in a lucid and grammatical style.

A "B" paper has the following virtues:

  1. As before.
  2. As before.
  3. As before.
  4. It is logical and not careless. The argument is well articulated.
  5. It is not trivial. The essay provides some motivation for its topic.
  6. The paper is grammatical.

A "C" paper has at least the following virtues:

  1. It is orderly and has some focus.
  2. It shows some serious concern with the issues it deals with.
  3. It is not uninformed. Where relevant, it shows awareness of the content of the course.
  4. There are some definite and cogent arguments in the essay.
  5. The paper has some point.
  6. The paper is readable and minimally grammatical.

A "D" paper

  1. Has some intelligible organization.
  2. Shows some concern with the issues it deals with.
  3. Shows minimal awareness of the course content.
  4. Makes some relevant and sensible argument
  5. Has some point.
  6. Is comprehensible and minimally grammatical.