Dan Hausman
5197 H. C. White Hall
263-5178     
dhausman@wisc.edu

Teaching
Assistants

Kevin Dewan
5162 H.C. White
263-3738
dewan@wisc.edu

Jonathan Lang
5170 H.C. White
262-2603
jonathanlang@wisc.edu
Office Hours:
Tuesday 11-12
Wednesday 1:30-2:30
Office Hours:
M 10:45-1:00
Th 10:45-11:45

Office Hours:  
Tu 11-12
Th 12-1

Philosophy 341 Syllabus


Introduction:

Although one cynical reaction to the world around us is to think of morality as empty words, the actions of individuals and even of whole societies are nevertheless influenced by moral judgments. Furthermore (although further cynical qualms are possible here), our moral judgments concerning actions and social policies are influenced by reasoning and argument.

This course will give us the opportunity to think deeply about four controversial and difficult moral issues: 1) surrogate motherhood, 2) abortion, 3) capital punishment, and 4) affirmative action. In addition, to provide some perspective and depth in our consideration of the particular issues, we shall spend some time with ethical theory.


Course Goals:

The overall goal is to enable all members of the class to reflect on their views and through this reflection and the criticisms of others to reach better articulated and justified conclusions. This requires both cultivation of skills of argumentation and criticism and familiarity with the considerations that support different sides of these issues. More specifically the course aims:

1. To provide some solid knowledge of the moral arguments concerning surrogate motherhood, abortion, capital punishment, and affirmative action. By providing this knowledge the course should help you to develop and to deepen your own views on these matters and to see through simplistic and shallow arguments. The moral arguments you will be studying will in many cases challenge your convictions or permit you to refine them.

2. To provide an introduction to moral argument and to moral theory in general: This course should help you to see how rational argument in morality works and to appreciate the force and limits of such arguments. The course should also help you to appreciate what moral theory is, how it can be important in your life and in society in general, how it can be valid and powerful, even though not always capable of producing consensus.

3. To provide an introduction to the nature of argument and of informal logic in general: To appreciate what can be said concerning moral issues such as affirmative action, one must be able to tell the difference between good and bad arguments, and one needs to be able to present and criticize arguments effectively. To the extent that this course helps you to make and criticize arguments, it should be of considerable use to you, quite apart from its particular subject matter.

4. To help you to develop your abilities to present and to criticize arguments both in discussion and, in particular, in writing: Every good essay, regardless of the subject matter, is an extended argument for some thesis or conclusion. The only thing special about philosophy essays is the extent to which one focuses upon the logic of the argument. This course should help you to write more sharply organized, focused and effective essays.

The extent to which these course goals can be achieved is, of course, largely up to you, but it is important that you appreciate what the teaching assistant and I are trying to accomplish. If you cannot see how any particular lecture or reading assignment relates to the goals of the course, please be sure to ask about it. In abstract matters it is especially important and especially difficult to be clear on what the point is. Keep asking "So what?" Since this course is much more concerned with mastering skills than with merely acquiring information, it demands your active participation, and I think that the interest and importance of the issues we will be addressing will reward that participation, too.


What this course does not aim to do:

1. This course does not aim to provide pat answers to questions such as "Is affirmative action morally permissible?" It is not a version of Sunday School. I don’t intend to preach, and if I get carried away, I hope you’ll jump on me. I have my own views concerning the issues, and in some cases, I feel confident that I've got some good answers. Yet I shall not be concerned to convert anybody. What is important in the course is conviction, intellectual honesty, and the sort of perseverance that makes one struggle to bring one's convictions and the weight of argument into accord. The course should help you rationally to make up your minds concerning surrogate motherhood, abortion, capital punishment, and affirmative action, but it will not espouse a set of "correct" positions.

2. This course does not aim to provide a thorough or precise introduction to moral theory. Although you should learn some moral theory, the subject is a deeper one than it might appear from the introductory material we will consider.


Note: Students are encouraged to discuss problems concerning the teaching of this course with the instructor and/or the TA. If students wish to pursue a complaint with someone else, they should contact James Anderson, Assistant to the Chairperson, Philosophy Department, 5185 H.C. White Hall, 263-5162.


Texts:

Francis Beckwith and Todd Jones, ed. Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination (AA)
Xeroxed collection.

Both will be on sale at the Underground Textbook Exchange located at 664 State Street and on reserve in the College Library.


Course Web Site:

A variety of material, including the syllabus and some other materials in the xeroxed collection will also be available on the web. Some of it will be on a public web page: http://philosophy.wisc.edu/hausman/341/Spring2009/341-Spring2009.htm. Other resources (such as student access to grades and discussion forums) will be available via Learn@UW.


Course Requirements:

There will be two essays, one quiz, one midterm, homework assignments, five-minute essays (attendance), and a final examination. Your semester grade will depend on the essays (50%), the quiz (5%), the midterm (10%), the final (25%), the homeworks (10%), and the five-minute essays (extra credit)

LECTURES AND DISCUSSION SECTIONS Attendance is technically optional, but the five minute essays provide you with a grade incentive for regular attendance. I welcome questions and comments during lecture.

INTRODUCTORY PAPER The introductory essay should be no more than 1000 words in length. It is designed to give you an opportunity to try your hand at writing a philosophy essay without the anxiety of having much of your grade depend on the result. It counts for only ten percent of your grade. A first version is due promptly at the beginning of class on Tuesday, February 10, and a revised version is due one week later, February 17. The first version must be completed on time, but your grade will depend on the revised version.

TERM PAPER The term paper counts for 40% of your semester grade. It should be no more than 1800 words and it is due at the beginning of class on Thursday, April 2. The term paper is due fairly early in the semester in order to make it possible for you to rewrite it and to submit a revised version. The optional revised version will be due on Tuesday, May 5. If you submit a revised version, your grade will be the average of your grades on the two versions.

DEBATES We will begin the consideration of each of the four issues with which this course is concerned with a debate on that issue. Debaters will be chosen in discussion sections, except for the first debate. Because of time constraints, I will ask in lecture for volunteers to participate in the first debate. Those who actually participate in the debates will receive credit for the initial homework assignment on the issue debated and on one additional homework assignment, provided that they do a competent job in the debate. See below for further information about the debates.

QUIZ There will be a quiz on logic and the first issue (surrogate motherhood) on Thursday, February 12. It will count for 5% of the semester grade.

MIDTERM It will cover abortion and surrogate motherhood and will be held on Thursday, March 12. It will count for 10% of your semester grade.

FINAL EXAMINATION The final examination will be cumulative, though it will emphasize material that comes after the midterm. It will involve both short-answer and essay questions.

HOMEWORK There will be eleven homework assignments. The assignments will not be corrected -- only checked for completion of the assignment. I will comment on only selected papers. You will receive a homework grade depending on how many of the assignments you complete. The assignments are listed in the syllabus. The homework will count for 10% of your semester grade. For details on how homework will be graded, see below. Please note that homework assignments cannot be submitted via email. You have a choice between either providing excuses for late homeworks (which you should keep together and submit at the end of the semester) OR taking advantage of the generous system of allowances for late homework. Homework should be submitted directly to me, not to the TAs. Please put the day and time of your section on the front of your homework papers.

FIVE-MINUTE ESSAYS There will be at least 10 of these and could be as many as 25. If you complete all of them, you will receive 3 points of extra credit. If you complete all but one, you will receive 2 points extra. If you complete all but 2, you will receive one point extra. If you complete all but 3, there will be no extra credit. Beginning with the fourth five-minute essay missed, each missing essay will lower your semester grade by 1%. If you are absent for a five-minute essay, you can make up the credit by studying someone's notes for that class and writing a substantial precis of the missed lecture, which must be emailed to Dan Hausman within two weeks of the missed class. Those who are ill or who are otherwise unable to come to class on a particular day can thus avoid any grade penalty, and the tasks required -- basically studying someone else's notes and thinking through what was missed -- are in any case necessary. Details concerning how to make up 5-minute essays are discussed later in the syllabus.


WARNING!! Philosophy challenges complacency. It’s hard to know what the truth is concerning hard questions like the ones we will be addressing this semester.


Course Outline:

Course Outline:

Tuesday, January 20: Introduction: discussion of the goals, structure and requirements of the course; discussion of the notion of what is morally right and of the distinction between facts and values.


Thursday, January 22: Is morality a matter of opinion or social consensus?

D. Hausman and M. McPherson, "What Are Moral Questions and How Can They Be Answered?"
Steven Pinker, "The Moral Instinct"


Tuesday, January 27: On arguments and informal logic

Steven Pinker, "The Moral Instinct"
D. Hausman,   "Skill Sheet: Good and Bad Arguments"


Thursday, January 29: Debate: Resolved that contracts whereby a surrogate mother agrees to bear and to give up a child in exchange for a fee ought to be as legally binding as is any other contract.

John Locke, Chapter 2 "Of the State of Nature" of his Second Treatise of Government
J.C.S. Sorkow, Opinion in the "Baby-M" Case
Katha Pollitt, "The Strange Case of Baby M,"
Opinion of the New Jersey Supreme Court

Homework #1 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words (one or two typed pages--but it doesn't have to be typed) stating your "initial" view of whether surrogate motherhood contracts ought to be legally binding. Give what seems to you to be the strongest argument in support of your initial view and try to make the argument as clear and logical as possible. Explain what reservations one might have concerning your argument and your position.


Tuesday, February 3 : Individual rights and the limits of government: Where do natural rights come from? What determines their scope? To what extent do they depend on matters of social expediency? Does permitting or banning surrogate motherhood contracts increase individual freedom? Does either policy violate individual rights?

John Locke, Chapter 2 "Of the State of Nature" of his Second Treatise of Government
J.C.S. Sorkow, Opinion in the "Baby-M" case


Thursday, February 5 : Qualms about surrogacy: What is right under ideal circumstances versus what is right under actual circumstances. Is there a conflict here in our understanding of individual liberty?

Katha Pollitt, "The Strange Case of Baby M"
Opinion of the New Jersey Supreme Court

Homework #2 due. Write a brief essay of roughly 300 words analyzing the following argument:

Provided that the parties are competent and sign voluntarily, surrogate motherhood contracts should be legally binding, because they do not call on the parties to do anything illegal. All contracts between competent individuals that are voluntarily signed and that do not call on the parties to do anything illegal should be legally binding.

Formulate this argument as logically valid and discuss whether it is sound. This homework assignment is something of a "dry run" for the introductory paper.


*Tuesday, February 10: On the limits of contracts and of natural rights--conclusions on surrogate motherhood

First version of introductory paper is due

 Judge Sorkow wrote the following (p. 8):

"[A]t birth, mother and father have equal rights to the child absent any other agreement.  The biological father pays the surrogate for her willingness to be impregnated and carry his child to term.  At birth, the father does not purchase the child.  It is his own biological genetically related child.  He cannot purchase what is already his."

Analyze and assess this argument.  Your essay should defend some thesis concerning this argument. It is not necessary to draw any overall conclusions concerning whether surrogate motherhood contracts should be legally enforceable. Your job is to clarify and to assess this argument.   Be sure to make crystal clear whether the argument is valid (or could be made valid), whether it is sound, and whether it is rationally persuasive.

Be sure to write a unified essay and to make clear the logical structure of your argument and what your premises are.  You must defend the claims you make, and you should be careful to consider and to respond to objections that might be made to them.  Above all, make sure that your paper has a clear thesis and a tight logical organization.

   In making your argument you may draw upon any of the readings that are appropriate, but what is important in an essay is your argument.  An essay is not like an examination answer.  While you should not, of course, be ignorant of relevant material and cannot just ignore objections and counterarguments in the readings and lectures, the point is not to show what you've read or heard in class, but to make an honest and persuasive case.  You should believe in what you are writing.

Late papers will be penalized unless you speak with me or your TA before the due date.  Papers should not be longer than three double-spaced typed pages (approximately 700-800 words).  Papers must be typed or printed. Please do not use binders of any kind.

The point of the introductory paper assignment is, on the one hand, to enable you to have a try at writing an analytical paper and to learn what this course demands and, on the other hand, to enable us to get to know what you are able to do already and what you need to learn.  Do not be discouraged if the paper is difficult to write well.  After all, if you can already write a good analytical essay, then you have less to gain in this course.  In our meeting we will go over formal details concerning paper writing as well as the substantive issues with which the course is concerned.

Make sure that your essay is double-spaced with wide margins and that it is correct in technical matters of spelling, punctuation, and so forth. Be sure also to consult the general suggestions on paper writing near the end of the syllabus.

You have until next Tuesday (February 17) to revise and improve your essay. If you discuss your essay with a classmate, be sure to acknowledge any help you've received when you hand in the revised version. You do not need to change the version you hand in today, but you have the opportunity to improve the paper before the TAs and I grade it.


Thursday, February 12: Quiz on logic and surrogate motherhood


*Tuesday, February 17: Debate #2: Resolved that abortion ought to be legal only in circumstances where continuing a pregnancy would lead to the death of the mother.

Roe v. Wade
Mary Anne Warren, "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion"
Don Marquis, "Why Abortion Is Immoral"
Judith Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion"
Baruch Brody, "Opposition to Abortion: A Human Rights Approach"
Immanuel Kant, "The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals"

Revised introductory paper due.


*Thursday, February 19: On rights and persons: What is a person? Do only persons have rights? Why do persons have rights? How can we decide which rights a person has?

Immanuel Kant, "The Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of MoralsRoe v. Wade
Mary Anne Warren, "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion"

Homework #3 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words presenting and criticizing the argument concerning abortion that you personally find most persuasive. The task is to try to lay bare, as far as possible, any weakness in your position.


Tuesday, February 24: Is a fetus a person? What is the relationship between mental capacities and being a person? What is the right to life?

Mary Anne Warren, "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion"


Thursday, February 26: What's wrong with killing a fetus? If it is prima facie wrong to kill a fetus, is abortion then impermissible?

Don Marquis, "Why Abortion Is Immoral"

Homework #4 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words explaining why it is confusing and misleading to debate the question of whether or when a fetus is human or whether or when a fetus is living. How should the question be phrased? Why?


Tuesday, March 3 : If a fetus is a person does it follow that abortion ought to be illegal?

Judith Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion"


Thursday, March 5 : Is killing an innocent human being always impermissible? Abortion and the doctrine of double effect.

Baruch Brody, "Opposition to Abortion: A Human Rights Approach"

Homework #5 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words contrasting Brody's example of the lifeboat to Thomson's example of the violinist. What do you think most people's intuitions would say about the two cases? Are these intuitions consistent? How can they be explained?


Tuesday, March 10 : Conclusions on abortion


Thursday, March 12: Midterm examination


Tuesday, March 24 : Utilitarianism: What is it? What are its implications for abortion? What arguments are there for or against utilitarianism?

"Some Notes on Utilitarianism"

Homework #6 due: Write an informal essay of 300 to 500 words applying utilitarianism to either the question of whether surrogate motherhood contracts should be legally enforceable or whether abortion should be legal.


Thursday, March 26: Debate: Resolved that execution is a morally permissible punishment for first-degree murder.

James Fieser, "Capital Punishment"
John Stuart Mill, "Speech in Favor of Capital Punishment"
John Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules"
Ernest van den Haag, "The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense"
Jeffrey Reiman, "Just Deserts and Just Punishments" from "Justice, Civilization, and the Death Penalty"


Tuesday, March 31: Punishment and desert

James Fieser, "Capital Punishment"
John Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules"
Jeffrey Reiman, "Just Deserts and Just Punishments" from "Justice, Civilization, and the Death Penalty"

Homework #7 due: Write an informal essay of 300-500 words stating your "initial" view of whether capital punishment is morally permissible. Give what seems to you to be the strongest argument in support of your initial view and try to make the argument as clear and logical as possible. Explain what reservations one might have concerning your argument and your position.


*Thursday, April 2: What is right about retributivism?

John Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules"
Jeffrey Reiman, "Just Deserts and Just Punishments" from "Justice, Civilization, and the Death Penalty"

Term Paper Due: Mary Anne Warren argues that the rights of potential people are negligible and never outweigh the rights of actual people such as pregnant women.  Analyze and assess her argument and consider how she would or could respond to the case made by Marquis or Brody.  The focus of your paper should be on Warren's argument and how it might be challenged by Marquis or Brody, not on whether Warren's conclusion is correct (though you can, of course comment on this) or on whether abortion ought to be legal.

Your essay should have a definite and substantial thesis, and it should be logically organized as an argument for your thesis. Be sure that your exposition of Warren's views is integrated into your argument rather than as functioning as a preface to your argument or a digression from it. Be sure to think hard about objections to your point of view and about how to respond to them. You can draw on other sources, but this is meant to be an analytical rather than a research paper.

Term papers should be about 1800 words long. They should be printed double-spaced with at least 1" margins, and they should be correct in spelling, punctuation, grammar and so forth. When you cite any texts, including Warren's article or any of the other assigned readings for the course, you must give references so that we can check them. Formal footnotes are not necessary. It is enough to put a reference such as "(Warren, p. ..)" in the text. But references are not optional, and your grade will be lowered if references are missing.

If you have trouble with your writing, I encourage you to seek help in the writing lab. The TAs and I will be happy to help you with your papers, but because you have the option of rewriting them, we will not read and comment on rough drafts.

Be sure to consult the general directions on writing philosophy papers near the end of the syllabus.


Tuesday, April 7: The death penalty in the United States and its utilitarian assessment

John Stuart Mill, "Speech in Favor of Capital Punishment"
Ernest van den Haag, "The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense"


Thursday, April 9: Debate: Resolved that affirmative action whereby African Americans are given preferential treatment in educational admissions and hiring is morally permissible.

Nicolas Lemann, "Taking Affirmative Action Apart" AA, pp. 34-55.
Lyndon Johnson "To Fulfill These Rights: Commencement Address at Howard University" AA, pp. 56-63.
Ward Connerly, "The Sweet Music of Equal Treatment" AA, pp. 64-69.
Ronald Dworkin, "The DeFunis Case: The Right to Go to Law School," AA, pp. 70-89.
Richard Wasserstrom, "A Defense of Programs of Preferential Treatment," AA, 198-204.
D. Hausman and M. McPherson, "Some Notes on Libertarianism"
Robert Fullinwider, "The Case for Reparations" (xerox)
David Horowitz, "Ten Reasons Why Reparations for Blacks is a Bad Idea for Blacks -- and Racist Too"
George Sher, "Justifying Reverse Discrimination in Employment," AA, 227-38.
Michael Levin, "Is Racial Discrimination Special?" AA, 214-26.
Louis Pojman, "The Moral Status of Affirmative Action," AA, 175-97.
Ronald Dworkin, "Affirming Affirmative Action" (xerox)

Homework #8 Due: Write an informal essay of 300-500 words stating your "initial" view of whether affirmative action programs are morally permissible. Give what seems to you to be the strongest argument in support of your initial view and try to make the argument as clear and logical as possible. Explain what reservations one might have concerning your argument and your position.


Tuesday, April 14: Affirmative Action: Introduction.

Nicolas Lemann, "Taking Affirmative Action Apart" AA, pp. 34-55.
Lyndon Johnson "To Fulfill These Rights: Commencement Address at Howard University" AA, pp. 56-63.
Ward Connerly, "The Sweet Music of Equal Treatment" AA, pp. 64-69.


Thursday, April 16: Is discrimination ever morally permissible?

Ronald Dworkin, "The DeFunis Case: The Right to Go to Law School," AA, pp. 70-89.
Richard Wasserstrom, "A Defense of Programs of Preferential Treatment," AA, 198-204.

Homework 9: Ward Connerly quotes the following passage from UC Berkeley's Daily Californian "Race-based affirmative action is wrong because it discriminates on the basis of race. For three decades, such discriminatory policies have been embraced with the hope that they would reverse the effects of centuries of racism....But the ends of social policy do not justify the means." (AA, pp. 65-66) Analyze this criticism of affirmative action. What is meant by "discrimination," and why is discrimination wrong? How strong an argument is this against affirmative action? Write a 300-500 word essay developing your answers to these questions.


Tuesday, April 21: Libertarianism and affirmative action: the compensation argument

D. Hausman and M. McPherson, "Some Notes on Libertarianism"
George Sher, "Justifying Reverse Discrimination in Employment," AA, 227-38.


Thursday, April 23: Compensation and Reparations

Robert Fullinwider, "The Case for Reparations" (xerox)
David Horowitz, "Ten Reasons Why Reparations for Blacks is a Bad Idea for Blacks -- and Racist Too"

Homework #10 due: Consider the following objection to reparations for the injustices of slavery. "Reparations are irrational because they demand that people who are entirely innocent of the injustices compensate people who are not victims of the injustices." How, if at all, can a defender of reparations respond to this objection?


Tuesday, April 28: The compensation argument for affirmative action:

George Sher, "Justifying Reverse Discrimination in Employment," AA, 227-38.
Michael Levin, "Is Racial Discrimination Special?" AA, 214-26.


Thursday, April 30: Equal Opportunity, Individual Responsibility, and Affirmative Action

Louis Pojman, "The Moral Status of Affirmative Action," AA, 175-97.

Homework #11 due: Write an informal essay of 300-500 words explaining how your views on one of the issues discussed this semester changed and why they changed.


Tuesday, May 5: Affirmative Action: An assessment of its consequences

Ronald Dworkin, "Affirming Affirmative Action" (xerox)

Optional Revision of Term Paper Due

You must submit the original paper along with the revision and an explanation (no more than one page) of how you revised your essay. Only significant revisions will be graded. Revisions that merely fix some copy-editing will not be graded.


Thursday, May 7: Conclusions and Review


Debates:

At the beginning of the discussion of each of the four issues with which the course in concerned, there will a debate on a specific resolution concerning the issue. One section will be responsible for each of the issues except the first, and we will do our best to satisfy the debate preferences of the sections. Students in sections that are not responsible for debates can also volunteer to join the debates. To compensate participants in the debates for their efforts, they will receive credit for the first homework assignment concerned with the issue debated without having to hand it in, provided that they do a competent job in the debate. Debaters will also receive a second homework credit that I will apply at the end of the semester in whatever way is most advantageous to the student. During the first lecture, I will ask for volunteers to participate in the first debate on surrogate motherhood. There should be three debaters on each side. The members of the discussion section responsible for the given issue are required to read ahead, so that during the section meeting before the debate they can thrash through the issues, and select section members to present the arguments pro and con that come up in the reading and discussion. The debate team members will need to decide how to divide up and organize their presentation. If there are no volunteers in section to serve in the debate, debaters will be chosen by lot. These debates can be a lot of fun and valuable to the whole class, not just to the participants; but their success depends (of course) on you.

The format for the debates will be as follows: Each team will have ten minutes to make its case. The team-members may divide up the time or choose one or two speakers to express their position. Then the floor will be open to give and take between the two teams, and all the debaters will be expected to participate. If I think it useful, I may direct some questions to the teams at the beginning of the give-and-take session. There is no definite time limit to this second round, but I will break off the exchange at some point to permit questions and arguments from the audience.


Homework:

The homework assignments are not meant to be polished essays and, unlike the introductory and term papers, they will not be graded for style, organization, spelling, and so forth. I will skim the homework and check to see that you've done what is required, but I will only comment on a random sample. (If there is a specific homework assignment of yours that you would like me to be sure to read, please write a note on the front of it.) Each assignment will be graded "pass" or "fail," and everyone who does what is assigned conscientiously can expect to pass. In the past, I have failed only a small number of the homework assignments, when they were too short or thoughtless or not on the assigned topic. You need to hand in only ten of the eleven homework assignments to get an A, though there is a small bonus for handing in all 11. For my own curiosity, I hope that as many students as possible are able to hand in homework #11. Though there seems little reason to plagiarize homework assignments, it has happened; and the fact that the assignments do not receive letter grades does not make the offense less serious.

There are many homework assignments and many possible reasons why students may fail to hand them in on time, and we could wind up spending many unrewarding hours together keeping track of excuses. To simplify matters, homework will be counted as handed in on time if the total number of late classes (not days) during the semester is six or less. (For example, your homework would count as on time if your 2nd assignment were 2 classes late, your 5th were 1 class late, and your 6th were 3 classes late.) No homework will be accepted that is more than four classes late.

This system is intended as a substitute for keeping track of excuses why your homework was late, but if you prefer, you can give me specific excuses for specific absences. Specific excuses can be used only instead of, not in addition to the six-class allowance and should not be given to me until after you have exhausted the six-class allowance. (In nearly 20 years of teaching, I know of only one student for whom it was advantageous to keep track of specific excuses rather than to make use of the 6-class allowance.) So there is no need to discuss the reasons why you are late handing in homework unless you have excuses for missing more than six classes. The system is set up to make it easy for those who do their homework to get an A. All homework must be in by the last class. Homework counts as late if it is not handed in before or during class on the assigned date. Homework may not be submitted via email.

If the total number of late classes is more than six, you will lose one-half point for each late class. Remember that you need hand in only ten of the eleven assignments to get an A. The grading will be as follows:

number handed-in 11 10 9.5 9 8.5 8 7.5 7 < 7
grade A+ A AB B BC C D F F (0)
points (toward semester grade) 10 9.8 9.1 8.5 7.9 7.3 6.7 5.9 0

Five-Minute Essays:

By distributing to you brief and often provocative questions and giving you five minutes to jot down your thoughts, these assignments encourage more active and thoughtful discussion. I do not appraise your five-minute essays, but I do note whether you've completed them or not, and in that way you get credit for course attendance.

There will be at least 10 five-minute essays, and there could be as many as 25. If you complete all of them, you will receive 3 points of extra credit. If you complete all but one, you will receive 2 points extra. If you complete all but 2, you will receive one point extra. If you complete all but 3, there will be no extra credit. Beginning with the fourth five-minute essay missed, each missing essay will lower your semester grade by 1%.

Since each missed five-minute essay costs you 1% of your semester grade, this way of grading the five-minute essays obviously gives you an additional reason to come to class. But absences are often unavoidable. In that case, there is a way to make up the missing five-minute essay. It is not necessary to notify the instructor of your absences or to explain the reasons. No reasons for absences relieve you of the responsibility to make up the missing five-minute essay.

Those who are ill or who are otherwise unable to come to class on a particular day can avoid any grade penalty by getting hold of the lecture notes of another student in the course and completing the following form within two weeks of the missed class.

************

MISSING FIVE-MINUTE ESSAY MAKE-UP FORM:

Name:

Name of student whose notes were used:

Date of the lecture:

Topic of the lecture:

Readings discussed:

Precis of the lecture, including careful presentation of any explicitly formulated arguments.

***************

The precis must be at least 500 words, and it must be accurate in its spelling, grammar, and punctuation. The completed misssed lecture make-up form should be pasted into an email message (NO ATTACHMENTS) and sent to the instructor (dhausman@wisc.edu), not to your TA. Precis that are late, that have significant problems with their writing, spelling, grammar or punctuation, that do not cover the material addressed in the missed lecture, or that are shorter than 500 words will not receive credit.

Missed-lecture make-ups are due within two weeks of the date of the missed lecture, but not after the last day of class.


Discussions:

Discussions are difficult to manage in a large class, but with such controversial and important issues we should strive for as much as possible. Don't be surprised if I call on you during lecture. I shall interpret your choice of a seat near the back as a request to me to call on you in discussion.This is not material to be passively absorbed, and I shall try to keep you involved thinking along with me. (By the way, one consistent finding of social scientists is that there is a clear correlation between how close to the front students sit and how high their grades are.)


Office Hours:

If my office hours, (Tuesday 11-12 and Wednesday 1:30-2:30) are not convenient, see me after class to arrange another time to meet. My job is to help you to master the skills and material with which this course is concerned, so feel free to come see me.


The Use of Email:

Email can be a great convenience, but in a large class, it can get out of hand. The TAs will have their own guidelines, which you should be careful to respect. With respect to communicating with me, feel free to email me at dhausman@wisc.edu with any specific questions you have about substance, assignments or requirements. If the question and answer are relevant to others, I will post them anonymously on the course discussion page. If you do not want your question posted, you should let me know. Otherwise I will assume that in emailing me, you’ve given me permission to post your question. That way I can serve as many students as possible. Some questions are not appropriate. For example, "Could you please restate the last three lectures?" Also, please do not email me or your TA to ask when five-minute essays were distributed. You should instead get to know other students in the class whose notes you can consult if you are unable to attend. some questions are of course better discussed in person than over email. I’ll do the best I can to be helpful.


A Note on Plagiarism:

Plagiarism is a serious offense. All sources and assistance used in preparing your papers must be precisely and explicitly acknowledged. If you have any questions about what constitutes plagiarism, please come talk with me or with your TA. Ignorance of what constitutes plagiarism is not a defense. It is your responsibility to be sure. The web creates special risks. Cutting and pasting even a few words from a web page or paraphrasing material without a reference constitutes plagiarism. If you are not sure how to refer to something you find on the internet, you can always give the URL.  It is generally better to quote than to paraphrase from material on the web, because in the absence of page numbers it can be hard to find passages that are paraphrased rather than quoted.


Grading Scheme:

I am planning on employing the on-line gradebook on the Learn@UW web site, despite continuing problems with this crummy software. The homework grades will show the number of late classes. If your homework is on time, I will record a +. If a homework assignment fails, I will record an "X" instead. If your homework assignment is, for example, handed in two classes late, there will be a "2" in the column.

For the graded assignments, I employ a point system; and even though the grades at the end of the semester are limited to A, AB, B, BC, C, D, and F, we will draw finer distinctions on particular assignments. Here is the point-to-grade conversion table we will use:

Grade A+ A A- AB B+ B B- BC C+ C C- D F
Percentage (points) 98-100 95-97 92-94 89-91 86-88 83-85 80-82 77-79 74-76 71-73 68-70 60-67 0-59

On assignments where we give you letter grades, such as papers, we will record the grade as the middle number in the range. So, for example, someone who gets a B+ on their term paper and does not hand in a revision will have 17.6 points in the tp (term paper) column and 17.6 points in the tpr (term paper revision) column, because 17.6 is 88% of 20 points. For another example, someone with a score of 84 on the quiz will get 4.2 points toward their semester total (84% of the 5 points for the quiz). Assignments that are not completed will get zero points. The table for converting total points for the semester to final letter grades is given on the Learn@UW web site.

The column labeled with the names of months will list dates for which 5-minute essays are missing. I will update these columns only at the end of the months.


The Role of Readings in the Course:

I do not usually devote my lectures to the exposition and discussion of the readings (though I am happy to entertain questions about how my lectures relate to the readings). Although I will cite and criticize specific arguments from the readings, the lectures usually present an independent perspective on the issues. Critically engaging with the arguments in the lectures is your most important task, but you may have a hard time understanding my arguments if you do not study the readings carefully. I selected the readings to represent a variety of different perspectives, and even when the readings are mistaken, there are valuable lessons to be learned from understanding their mistakes. The examinations will ask not only that you have mastered the material in the lectures but that you be able to relate the arguments in the lectures to the arguments in the readings and to respond intelligently to questions concerning the important arguments in the readings.


Some Hints on Writing Philosophy Papers:

Although you will not be able to understand completely the most difficult philosophical texts such as Kant's Groundwork, you should aim to master most of the readings, particularly those that address specific issues. Here are some detailed hints about how to do so:

1. Use your highlighter very sparingly. It is much more useful to pencil in marginal notes summarizing or querying specific points than to highlight passages. Actively engaging the author is much more valuable than merely trying to assimilate the prose. And if you do highlight, only highlight a small percentage of the text. (There is not much point to highlighting everything, apart from adding color to the page!)

2. The assignments are usually short, and you should plan on reading the assignments at least twice. During the first reading you should ask yourself:

a. What is the author's position?

b. What is the general structure of the paper? Is it a collection of separate arguments, or does it aim to make one main argument?

c. What are the author's main assumptions? (Where is the author coming from?)

d. Against whom does the author take him/herself to be arguing? What is the context in which the piece was written?

e. What is the main line of argument (or what are the main lines of argument)?

f. What objections does the author address and how successful is the author in answering them?

g. How does the author's position relate to your views? To what extent does the author reinforce or challenge your views?

h. How do the author's arguments relate to the arguments developed in lecture and in other reading assignments? What criticisms would the author make of arguments developed in lecture or in other readings? To what extent is the position of the author open to criticisms made in lecture or in other readings?

During the second reading of the assignment, you should proceed more slowly and critically. Rather than asking, as suggested above, questions about what the author's purposes, organization, and argument are, you should try to assess all of these and particularly the author's arguments


General Directions on Writing the Papers

Style and references:

1. You are expected to give references when you cite detailed claims or arguments made in the readings, and your papers should, where appropriate, show familiarity with relevant materials from the lectures or reading for the course. But you are expected to write essays, not examination answers. So don't introduce irrelevant matters to demonstrate that you have done the course readings. (But you must not ignore relevant supporting arguments and, particularly, objections in the readings.) Cite the readings only when they are relevant. Be sure that your paper is a well organized argument for some clearly articulated thesis.

2. When you quote, paraphrase, or make use of a point made by others, be sure to document the source. We are not particular about what style you use. All that matters is that your references be precise and usable. If you say that Pollitt says that contracts are worthless, it should be clear on what page Pollitt supposedly says that. The easiest way to give a reference is simply to put the source and page number in parenthesis. Papers without clear references (where needed) will be marked down.

3. Papers must be typed or printed double-spaced with wide margins (at least one inch) on all sides, so that there is plenty of room for marginal comments. Be sure to keep copies of your papers. Please do not use binders.

4. Papers for the course must be essentially correct in their "mechanical" aspects-- spelling, punctuation, grammar, typing, and so forth. Papers with more than 3 or 4 errors per page will be marked down, and if they are very messy, they will not only be penalized, but they will also be returned for correction before they are graded. Obviously spelling and typing are of no intrinsic importance, but messy papers are hard to assess; and it is not unfair to expect you to take responsibility for making sure that your papers are correct in these regards. If you have difficulty with the mechanical features of paper writing, please get someone to proofread your paper before you hand it in.


Hints on essay writing:

1. The paper topics are not recipes for writing your essays. You have to decide what it is that you want to maintain in your essays. Do not regard the paper topic as an essay examination question. Although your papers must be on the assigned topic, the point is to write a well-organized and unified argument for some clearly enunciated conclusion.

2. The task of writing a good essay is virtually identical with the task of thinking out a clear thesis or conclusion that you want to defend and then elaborating and defending it. You should be able to say clearly and precisely not only what your paper is about, but also what your paper maintains or shows. Be sure each of your papers has both a thesis--that it asserts something definite--and a logical organization. Once it is clear what you what to show, you will have a criterion to decide what is relevant and the basis for organizing your paper. Can you put your main point clearly in a sentence? Can you say clearly in a sentence what your paper shows or proves? Are all the parts of your paper relevant to your main point? Is the structure of your argument clear? No good essay merely summarizes things you have read and then offers your remarks or points of comparison or differences you noticed. Every acceptable essay integrates its remarks into an argument of its own. Exposition of the views of others should always be part of your argument for your thesis.

3. Note that a well-organized paper is not merely orderly. For example, a paper that argues that Thomson argues claims 1, 2, and 3 and that one can defend claim 1 as follows, claim 2 as follows, but not claim 3 is certainly orderly, and it certainly has a thesis. But it would only be well-organized--truly one paper rather than three--if the discussions of the three claims bore some relations to one another and if the paper added up to some unified and substantive statement. Please do not put section headings in your papers.

4. Avoid first paragraphs that say things such as, "First I will discuss the views of Pollitt and Sorkow. Then I will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Then I will compare their conclusions and formulate my opinion." Passages such as these make it sound as if your argument will begin only on the last page. Exposition of the views of others has to find its place within your argument, not as a preface to your argument. If you think in terms of what you want to establish, and outline your paper in terms of stages in your argument, your essay will be much stronger.

5. Try to say exactly what you mean. Pay careful attention to your language. Sentences such as "Abortion is a mistaken principle" are unacceptably careless. Value your words and use them accurately.

6. To help in organizing your thinking, you should attempt to answer the following three questions:

1. What is your thesis--that is, what is it that you are trying to maintain or show or prove? What is your main argument for your thesis?

2. What is the most important objection to or criticism of your thesis that you need to consider? Formulate that objection or criticism as an argument.

3. What is your argument in response to the objection or criticism mentioned in answer to question 2?

If you cannot answer these questions clearly and easily, then there are serious problems with your paper. Do not regard your papers as finished or acceptable until each clearly implies answers to the above questions. (But an essay is not, of course, a list of answers to any set of questions.) Taking the task of answering these questions seriously can make a big difference in the quality of your paper.


Special considerations in writing philosophical papers:

1. In a political debate, the point is to win, and one consequently tries to make the arguments of one's opponents sound as ridiculous and worthless as possible. In a philosophical debate (or in writing a philosophy essay), in contrast, the objective is to learn the truth. So you should try to make the arguments conflicting with your views as compelling as possible, before you answer them. If there are any objections to what you are maintaining that you cannot answer, then you cannot be sure that you are right. Work hard at trying to see "the other side".

2. Although many sociological and economic facts are relevant to the issues you are addressing in your essays, be careful to keep your focus philosophical. If you aren't sure whether your papers are philosophical or not, check with me or with your TA.


Seeking help:

When working on the final versions of your essays, feel free to come to your teaching assistant or me for help. You do not need to do further research, but you can consult with us if you want references for further reading.

There are some excellent resources on the web for writing philosophy papers. I particularly recommend:

www.sfu.ca/philosophy/writing.htm This is brief, clear, and helpful.

http://www.princeton.edu/~jimpryor/general/writing.html Excellent, but much lengthier.

www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/philosophy.html For those who are serious about philosophy.

www.cofc.edu/~portmord/tips.htm Contains lots of references for further study.

A terrific general source on writing is Strunk and White's The Elements of Style. The first edition is available on the web at http://www.bartleby.com/141/


Paper grading criteria

An "A" paper typically has all of the following virtues, although in exceptional cases papers with only five of the six virtues might merit an "A"

1. It has a well-defined thesis and a logical organization.

2. It shows good sense, intellectual honesty and struggle. It attempts to defend a defensible thesis and takes seriously objections to that thesis.

3. It is well-informed. If there are passages in the assigned readings for the course that are particularly relevant to the matters under discussion in the essay, these are cited and discussed. The paper shows an awareness of conceptual dis-tinctions and clarifications developed in the course.

4. It is intelligent, logical, and careful. The argument is carefully articulated and developed. Obvious difficulties are anticipated and answered, and gaps are closed.

5. It is significant. The issues discussed, although typically matters of detail, are of some importance, and their importance is made clear within the essay.

6. The paper is written in a lucid and grammatical style.


A "B" paper has the following virtues:

1. As before.

2. As before.

3. As before.

4. It is logical and not careless. The argument is well articulated.

5. It is not trivial. The essay provides some motivation for its topic.

6. The paper is grammatical.


A "C" paper has at least the following virtues:

1. It is orderly and has some focus.

2. It shows some serious concern with the issues it deals with.

3. It is not uninformed. Where relevant, it shows awareness of the content of the course.

4. There are some definite and cogent arguments in the essay.

5. The paper has some point.

6. The paper is readable and minimally grammatical.


A "D" paper

1. Has some intelligible organization.

2. Shows some concern with the issues it deals with.

3. Shows minimal awareness of the course content.

4. Makes some relevant and sensible argument

5. Has some point.

6. Is comprehensible.