Bibliography from The Inexact and Separate Science of Economics (1992)


Achinstein, P. 1983. The Nature of Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Achinstein, P., ed. 1983. The Concept of Evidence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Adorno, T., ed. 1969. Der Positivismussstreit in der Deutschen Soziologie. Darmstadt: Hermann Luchterhand Verlag.

Ahonen, G. 1989. "On the Empirical Content of Keynes' General Theory." Richerche Economiche 43: 256--69.

Akerlof, G. 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism." Quarterly Journal of Economics 84: 488--500.

1980. "A Theory of Social Custom, of Which Unemployment May Be one Consequence." Quarterly Journal of Economics 94: 749--75.

1982. "Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange." Quarterly Journal of Economics 97: 543--69.

1984. An Economic Theorist's Book of Tales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1985. "Discriminatory, Status-based Wages among Tradition-oriented, Stochastically Trading Coconut Producers." Journal of Political Economy 93: 265--76.

Akerlof, G. and W. Dickens. 1982. "The Economic Consequences of Cognitive Dissonance." American Economic Review 72: 307--19.

Akerlof, G. and J. Yellen. 1985. "Can Small Deviations from Rationality Make Significant Differences to Economic Equilibria?" American Economic Review 75: 708--20.

Alchian, A. 1950. "Uncertainty, Evolution and Economic Theory." Journal of Political Economy 57: 211--21.

Allais, M. 1947. Economie et Intérêt. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

1952. "The Foundations of a Positive Theory of Choice involving Risk and a Criticism of the Postulates and Axioms of the American School," in Allais and Hagen (1979), pp. 27--145.

Allais, M. and O. Hagen, eds. 1979. Expected Utility Hypotheses and the Allais Paradox. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Ando, A. and F. Modigliani. 1963. "The Life-Cycle Hypothesis of Saving: Aggregate Implications and Tests." American Economic Review 53: 55--84.

Anschutz, R. 1953. The Philosophy of J. S. Mill. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Anscombe, E. 1969. Intentionality. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

1981. "The Intentionality of Sensation: A Grammatical Feature," in G. Anscombe. Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 3--20.

Archibald, G. 1959. "The State of Economic Science." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10: 58--69.

1961. "Chamberlin versus Chicago." Review of Economic Studies 29: 2--28.

1967. "Refutation or Comparison?" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 17: 279--96.

Aristotle. 1958. Physics, tr. R. Hardie and R. Gaye, The Pocket Aristotle. Repr. New York: Washington Square Press, pp. 2--47.

Aronson, E. 1979. The Social Animal. 3rd. edn. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Arrow, K. 1963. Social Choice and Individual Values. New York: Wiley.

1967. "Values and Collective Decision Making." Repr. in Hahn and Hollis (1979), pp. 110--26.

1978. "Extended Sympathy and the Possibility of Social Choice." Philosophia 7: 223--37.

Arrow, K. and F. Hahn. 1971. General Competitive Analysis. San Francisco: Holden-Day.

Asimakopulos, A. 1967. "The Pure Consumption-Loan Model Once More." Journal of Political Economy 75: 763--4.

Ausubel, L. 1991. "The Failure of Competition in the Credit Card Market." American Economic Review 81: 50--81.

Ayer, A. 1936. Language, Truth and Logic. 2nd. edn. Repr. New York: Dover, 1946.

Ayer, A.,. ed. 1959. Logical Positivism. New York: Free Press.

Baker, C. 1975. "The Ideology of the Economic Analysis of Law." Philosophy and Public Affairs 5: 3--48.

Balzer, W. and B. Hamminga, eds. 1989. Philosophy of Economics. Dordrecht: Kluwer-Nijhoff.

Barrett, M. and D. Hausman. 1990. "Making Interpersonal Comparisons Coherently." Economics and Philosophy 6: 293--300.

Barro, R. 1974. "Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?" Journal of Political Economy 82: 1095--117.

Basmann, R. 1963. "The Causal Interpretation of Non-Triangular Systems of Economic Relations." Econometrica 31: 439--48.

Battalio, R. C., L. Green, and J. H. Kagel. 1981. "Income-Leisure Trade-Offs of Animal Workers." American Economic Review 71: 621--32.

Battalio, R. C., J. H. Kagel, L. Green, et. al. 1979. "Consumer Demand Behavior with Pigeons as Subjects." Journal of Political Economy 89: 67--91.

Baumberger, J. 1977. "No Kuhnian Revolutions in Economics." Journal of Economic Issues 11: 1--20.

Bear, D. and D. Orr. 1967. "Logic and Expediency in Economic Theorizing." Journal of Political Economy 75: 188--96.

Beauchamp, T. and A. Rosenberg. 1981. Hume and the Problem of Causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Becker, G. 1962. "Irrational Behavior and Economic Theory." Journal of Political Economy 70: 1--13.

1976. The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1981. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Becker, G., M. deGroot, and J. Marschak. 1964. "Measuring Utility by a Single-Response Sequential Method." Behavioral Science 9: 226--32.

Begg, D. 1982. The Rational Expectations Revolution in Macroeconomics: Theories and Evidence. Baltimore: Johns-Hopkins University Press.

Bell, D. and I. Kristol, eds. 1981. The Crisis in Economic Theory. New York: Basic Books.

Bennett, J. 1984. "Counterfactuals and Temporal Direction." Philosophical Review 93: 57--91.

Bentham, J. 1789. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, ed. W. Harrison. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1967.

Berg, J., J. Dickhaut, and J. O'Brien. 1985. "Preference Reversal and Arbitrage," in V. Smith, ed. Research in Experimental Economics, vol. 3. Greenwich: JAI Press, pp. 31--72.

Bergmann, B. 1989. "Does the Market for Women's Labor Need Fixing?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 3: 43--60.

Berofsky, B. 1971. Determinism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bicchieri, C. 1988. "Should a Scientist Abstain from Metaphor?" in Klamer, et al. (1988), pp. 100--14.

Binmore, K. 1987. "Modeling Rational Players: Part I." Economics and Philosophy 3: 179--214.

1988. "Modeling Rational Players: Part II." Economics and Philosophy 4: 9--56.

Blaug, M. 1975. 1976. "Kuhn versus Lakatos or Paradigms versus Research Programmes in the History of Economics," in Latsis, ed. (1976), pp. 149--80.

1980a. The Methodology of Economics: Or How Economists Explain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1980b. A Methodological Appraisal of Marxian Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

1985. "Comment on D. Wade Hand's 'Karl Popper and Economic Methodology: A New Look.'" Economics and Philosophy 1: 286--9

1987. "Second Thoughts on the Keynesian Revolution," Mimeograph English version of "Ripensamenti Sulla Rivoluzione Keynesiana." Rassegna Economica 51: 605--34.

Blaug, M. and N. de Marchi, eds. 1991. Appraising Modern Economics: Studies in the Methodology of Scientific Research Programs. Edward Elgar.

Blinder, A. 1974. "The Economics of Brushing Teeth." Journal of Political Economy 82: 887--91.

Blinder, A. and D. Choi. 1990. "A Shred of Evidence on Theories of Wage Stickiness." Quarterly Journal of Economics 105: 1003--15.

Bliss, C. 1975. Capital Theory and the Distribution of Income. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Böhm-Bawerk, E. 1888. The Positive Theory of Capital, tr. W. Smart. Repr. New York: G. E. Stechert & Co., 1923.

Boland, L. 1979. "A Critique of Friedman's Critics." Journal of Economic Literature 17: 503--22.

1981. "On the Futility of Criticizing the Neoclassical Maximization Hypothesis." American Economic Review 73: 1031--6.

1982a. "Difficulties with the Element of Time and the 'Principles' of Economics or Some Lies My Teachers Told Me." Eastern Economic Journal 8: 47--58.

1982b. The Foundations of Economic Method. London: Allen & Unwin.

1986. Methodology for a New Microeconomics. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

1987. "Boland on Friedman's Methodology: A Summation." Journal of Economic Issues 21: 380--8.

1989. The Methodology of Economic Model Building: Methodology after Samuelson. London: Routledge.

Booth, W. 1974. Modern Dogma and the Rhetoric of Assent. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1979. Critical Understanding: The Powers and Limits of Pluralism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Boyd, R. 1984. "The Current Status of Scientific Realism," in J. Leplin, ed. Scientific Realism. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 41--82.

Braithwaite, R. 1953. Scientific Explanation: A Study of the Function of Theory, Probability and Law in Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bray, J. 1977. "The Logic of Scientific Method in Economics." Journal of Economic Studies 4: 1--28.

Braybrooke, D. 1987. Meeting Needs. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bridgman, P. 1927. The Logic of Modern Physics. New York: Macmillan.

1938. "Operational Analysis." Philosophy of Science 5: 114--31.

Brodbeck, M. 1958. "Methodological Individualism: Definition and Reduction." Philosophy of Science 25: 1--22.

Bromberger, S. 1966. "Why Questions," in R. Colodny, ed. Mind and Cosmos: Essays in Contemporary Science and Philosophy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Bronfenbrenner, M. 1966. "A 'Middlebrow' Introduction to Economic Methodology," in Krupp, S., ed. The Structure of Economic Science. New York: Prentice-Hall, pp. 5--24.

1971. "The Structure of Revolutions in Economic Thought." History of Political Economy 3: 136--51

Brunner, K. 1969. "'Assumptions' and the Cognitive Quality of Theories." Synthese 20: 501--25.

Brzezinski, J. F. Coniglione, R. Kuipers, and L. Nowak, eds. 1990. Idealization I: General Problems. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and Humanities. 16. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Buchanan, J. 1975. The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and the Leviathan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1979. What Should Economists Do? Indianapolis: Liberty Press.

Buck, R. 1963. "Reflexive Predictions." Philosophy of Science 30: 359--69.

Burke, K. 1950. A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.

1961. The Rhetoric of Religion: Studies in Logology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cairnes, J. 1875. The Character and Logical Method of Political Economy. 2nd. edn. Repr. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1965.

Caldwell, B. 1980a. "A Critique of Friedman's Methodological Instrumentalism." Southern Economic Journal 47: 366--74.

1982. Beyond Positivism: Economic Methodology in the Twentieth Century. London: Allen & Unwin.

1983. "The Neoclassical Maximization Hypothesis: Comment." American Economic Review 75: 824--7.

1990. "Does Methodology Matter? How Should It Be Practiced?" Finnish Economic Papers 3: 64--71.

1991. "Clarifying Popper." Journal of Economic Literature 29: 1--33.

Caldwell, B. ed. 1984. Appraisal and Criticism in Economics. London: Allen & Unwin.

Campbell, N. 1957. Foundations of Science (originally titled Physics, The Elements). New York: Dover.

Carnap, R. 1936, 1937. "Testability and Meaning." Philosophy of Science 3: 420--68 and 4: 1--40.

1950. Logical Foundations of Probability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1956. "The Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts," in H. Feigl and M. Scriven, eds. Minnesoata Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 1. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 33--76.

Carter, M. and R. Maddock. 1984. Rational Expectations: Macroeconomics for the 1980's? London: Macmillan.

Cartwright, N. 1983. How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

1989. Nature's Capacities and their Measurement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cass, D., M. Okuno, and I. Zilcha. 1980. "The Role of Money in Supporting the Pareto Optimality of Competitive Equilibrium in Consumption Loan Type Models," in Kareken and Wallace (1980), pp. 13--48.

Cass, D. and K. Shell. 1980. "In Defense of a Basic Approach," in Kareken and Wallace (1980), pp. 251--60.

Cass, D. and M. Yaari. 1966. "A Re-examination of the Pure Consumption Loans Model." Journal of Political Economy 74: 353--67.

Chisholm. R. 1957. Perceiving. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Christensen, D. 1983. "Glymour on Evidential Relevance." Philosophy of Science 50: 471--81.

1990. "The Irrelevance of Bootstrapping." Philosophy of Science 57: 644--62.

Chu, Y. and R. Chu. 1990. "The Subsidence of Preference Reversals in Simplified and Marketlike Experimental Settings: A Note." American Economic Review 80: 902--11.

Churchland, P. and C. Hooker, eds. 1985. Images of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Coase, R. 1960. "The Problem of Social Cost." Journal of Law and Economics 3: 1--30.

Coats, A. 1969. "Is There a 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions' in Economics?" Kyklos 22: 289--94.

Coddington, A. 1972. "Positive Economics." Canadian Journal of Economics 5: 1--15.

1975. "The Rationale of General Equilibrium Theory." Economic Inquiry 13: 539--58.

1979, "Friedman's Contribution to Methodological Controversy." British Review of Economic Issues, pp. 1--13.

Colander, D. and A. Klamer. 1987. "The Making of An Economist." Journal of Economic Perspectives 1: 95--112.

Coleman, James. 1986. Individual Interest and Collective Action: Selected Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coleman, Jules. 1984. "Economics and the Law: A Critical Review of the Foundations of the Economic Approach to Law." Ethics 94: 649--79.

Collingwood, R. 1940. An Essay on Metaphysics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cooter, R. and P. Rappoport. 1984. "Were the Ordinalists Wrong About Welfare Economics?" Journal of Economic Literature 22: 507--30.

Copernicus, Nicholas, 1543. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, tr. A. Duncan. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1976.

Cox, J. and S. Epstein. 1989. "Preference Reversals Without the Independence Axiom." American Economic Review 79: 408--26.

Cross, R. 1982. "The Duhem-Quine Thesis, Lakatos and the Appraisal of Theories in Macroeconomics." Economic Journal 92: 320--40.

Cyert, R., and E. Grunberg. 1963. "Assumption, Prediction and Explanation in Economics," in Cyert and March (1963), pp. 298--311.

Cyert, R., and J. March. eds. 1963. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Cyert, R. and G. Pottinger. 1979. "Towards a Better Micro-economic Theory." Philosophy of Science 46: 204--22.

Dagum, C. 1986. "Economic Model, System and Structure, Philosophy of Science and Lakatos' Methodology of Scientific Research Programs." Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali 33: 859--86.

Davidson, D. 1963. "Actions, Reasons and Causes." Journal of Philosophy 60: 685--700.

1980. Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

De Alessi, L. 1971. "Reversals of Assumptions and Implications." Journal of Political Economy 79: 867--77.

Debreu, G. 1959. Theory of Value. New York: Wiley.

1991. "The Mathematization of Economic Theory." American Economic Review 81: 1--7.

de Marchi, N. 1970. "The Empirical Content and Longevity of Ricardian Economics." Economica 37: 257--76.

1976. "Anomaly and the Development of Economics: The Case of the Leontief Paradox," in Latsis, ed. (1976), pp. 100--28.

1986. "Discussion: Mill's Unrevised Philosophy of Economics: A Comment on Hausman." Philosophy of Science 53: 89--100.

de Marchi, N., ed. 1988. The Popperian Legacy in Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dewey, J. 1939a. "Experience, Knowledge and Value: A Rejoinder," in Schilpp (1939), pp. 515--608.

1939b. Theory of Valuation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Diamond, P. 1965. "National Debt in a Neoclassical Growth Model." American Economic Review 55: 1126--50.

Diesing, P. 1982. Science and Ideology in the Policy Sciences. New York: Aldine.

Dillard, D. 1978. "Revolutions in Economic Theory." Southern Economic Journal 44: 705--24.

Dolan, E., ed. 1976. The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward.

Dorling, J. 1972. "Bayesianism and the Rationality of Scientific Inference." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23: 181--90.

1979. "Bayesian Personalism, The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes, and Duhem's Problem." Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 10: 177--87.

Dray, W. 1957. Laws and Explanation in History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dreyer, J. 1953. A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (formerly titled History of the Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler). New York: Dover.

Dugger, W. 1979. "Methodological Differences between Institutional and Neoclassical Economics." Journal of Economic Issues 13: 899--909.

Duhem, P. 1906. The Aim and Structure of Scientific Theories, tr. P. Wiener. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954.

1908. To Save the Phenomena, tr. S. Jaki. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Durkheim, D. 1951. Suicide: A Study in Sociology, tr. J. Spaulding and G. Simpson. New York: Free Press.

Earman, John, ed. 1983. Testing Scientific Theories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Earman, J. and C. Glymour. 1988. "What Revisions Does Bootstrap Testing Need? A Reply." Philosophy of Science 55: 260--4.

Edgeworth, F. 1881. Mathematical Psychics: An Essay on the Application of Mathematics to the Moral Sciences. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Edidin, A. 1981. "Glymour on Confirmation." Philosophy of Science 48: 292--307.

1983. "Bootstrapping without Bootstraps," in Earman (1983), pp. 43--54.

1988. "From Relative Confirmation to Real Confirmation." Philosophy of Science 55: 255--71.

Eells, E. 1982. Rational Decision and Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1985. "Problems of Old Evidence." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 66: 283--302.

Eichner, A. 1983. "Why Economics Is not yet a Science," in A. Eichner, ed. Why Economics Is not yet a Science. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 205--41.

Ellsberg, D. 1954. "Classic and Current Notions of 'Measurable Utility.'" Economic Journal 64: 528--56. Repr. in A. Page, ed. Utility Theory: A Book of Readings. New York: Wiley, 1968, pp. 269--96.

Elster, J. 1983. Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1989a. The Cement of Society: A Study of Social Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1989b. Solomonic Judgements: Studies in the Limitations of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elster, J. and J. Roemer, eds. 1991. Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Engle, R., D. Hendry, and J. Richard. 1983. "Exogeneity." Econometrica 51: 277--304.

Esteban, J. 1986. "A Characterization of the Core in Overlapping-Generations Economies: An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money." Journal of Economic Theory 39: 439--56.

Etzioni, A. 1986. "The Case for a Multiple-Utility Conception." Economics and Philosophy 2: 159--84.

1988. The Moral Dimension. Toward a New Economics. New York: Macmillan.

Fair, R. 1978. "A Theory of Extramarital Affairs." Journal of Political Economy 86: 45--61.

Fama, E. 1980. "Agency Problems and the Theory of the Firm." Journal of Political Economy 88: 288--307.

Feigl, H. and G. Maxwell, eds. 1962. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 3. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Feyerabend, P. 1965. "On the Meaning of Scientific Terms." Journal of Philosophy 62: 266--74.

1975. Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge. London: Verso Edition.

Fish, S. 1980. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

1988. "Comments from Outside Economics," in Klamer, et al. (1988), pp. 21--30.

Fisher, R. 1986. The Logic of Economic Discovery: Neoclassical Economics and the Marginal Revolution. New York: New York University Press.

Frank, R. 1988. Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New York: W. W. Norton.

Franklin, A. 1986. The Neglect of Experiment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fraser, L. 1937. Economic Thought and Language. A Critique of Some Fundamental Concepts. London: A & C Black.

Frazer, W. and L. Boland. 1983. "An Essay on the Foundations of Friedman's Methodology." American Economic Review 73: 129--44.

Friedman, Michael. 1974. "Explanation and Scientific Understanding." Journal of Philosophy 71: 5--19.

1979. "Truth and Confirmation." Journal of Philosophy 76: 361--82.

unpublished. "Philosophy and the Exact Sciences: Logical Positivism as a Case Study."

Friedman, Milton. 1953a. Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1953b. "The Marshallian Demand Curve," in Friedman (1953a), pp. 47--99.

1953c. "The Methodology of Positive Economics," in Friedman (1953a), pp. 3--43.

1957. A Theory of the Consumption Function. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

1962a. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1962b. Price Theory: A Provisional Text, Revised edition. Chicago: Aldine.

1970. "Leon Walras and His Economic System," in I. Rima, ed. Readings in the History of Economic Theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, pp. 145--53.

Friedman, M. and L. Savage. 1952. "The Expected-Utility Hypothesis and the Measurability of Utility." Journal of Political Economy 60: 463--74.

Fuchs, V. 1989. "Women's Quest for Economic Equality." Journal of Economic Perspectives 3: 25--42.

Fulton, G. 1984. "Research Programmes in Economics." History of Political Economy 16: 187--206.

Gale, D. 1973. "Pure Exchange Equilibrium of Dynamic Economic Models." Journal of Economic Theory 6: 12--36.

Galileo Galilei. 1632. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

1638. Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences. New York, 1917.

Garber, D. 1983. "Old Evidence and Logical Omniscience in Bayesian Confirmation Theory," in Earman (1983), pp. 99--131.

Gauthier, D. 1986. Morals by Agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Geanakoplos, J. and H. Polemarchakis. 1986. "Walrasian Indeterminacy and Keynesian Macroeconomics." Review of Economic Studies 53: 755--79.

Gellner, E. 1973. Cause and Meaning in the Social Sciences, ed. I. Jarvie and J. Agassi. London: Routledge.

Geweke, J. 1982. "Causality, Exogeneity and Inference," in W. Hildenbrand, ed. Advances in Econometrics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1984. "Inference and Causality in Economic Time Series Models," in Z. Griliches and M. Intriligator, eds. Handbook of Econometrics, vol. 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Gibbard, A. and H. Varian. 1978. "Economic Models." Journal of Philosophy 75: 664--77.

Giere, R. 1979, 1982. Understanding Scientific Reasoning. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 2nd. edn. 1982.

1980. "Causal Systems and Statistical Hypotheses," in L. Cohen and M. Hesse, eds. Applications of Inductive Logic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 251--70.

1983. "Testing Theoretical Hypotheses," in Earman (1983), pp. 269--98.

1988. Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Glymour, C. 1980. Theory and Evidence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

1983. "On Testing and Evidence," in Earman (1983), pp. 3--26.

Glymour, C., K. Kelly, R. Scheines, and P. Spirtes. 1987. Discovering Causal Structure. New York: Academic Press.

Goldman, A. 1986. Epistemology and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Goodman, N. 1973. Fact, Fiction and Forecast. 3rd. edn. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Gorovitz, S. 1969. "Aspects of the Pragmatics of Explanation." Nous 3: 61--72.

Granger, C. 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods." Econometrica 37: 424--38.

1980. "Testing for Causality: A Personal Viewpoint." Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 2: 329--52.

1985. "Causality Testing in a Decision Science." Department of Economics, University of California, San Diego Discussion Paper #85-19.

Granovetter, M. 1981. "Toward a Sociological Theory of Income Differences," in I. Berg, ed. Sociological Perspectives on Labor Markets. New York: Academic Press, pp. 11--47.

1985. "Economics and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness." American Journal of Sociology 91: 481--510.

Green, E. 1981. "On the Role of Fundamental Theory in Positive Economics," in Pitt (1981), pp. 5--15.

Grether, D. and C. Plott. 1979. "Economic Theory of Choice and the Preference Reversal Phenomenon." American Economic Review 69: 623--38.

1982. "Economic Theory of Choice and the Preference Reversal Phenomenon: Reply." American Economic Review 72: 575.

Griffin, J. 1986. Well-Being: Its Meaning, Measurement and Moral Importance. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Grimes, T. 1987. "The Promiscuity of Bootstrapping." Philosophical Studies 51: 101--7.

Gruchy, A. 1947. Modern Economic Thought: The American Contribution. Repr. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1967.

Grünbaum, A. 1976. "Is Falsifiability the Touchstone of Scientific Rationality? Karl Popper Versus Inductivism," in R. Cohen, et. al., eds. Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 213--52.

Hacking, I. 1979. "Imre Lakatos's Philosophy of Science." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30: 181--202.

1983. Representing and Intervening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hagen, O. 1979. "Towards a Positive Theory of Preferences Under Risk," in Allais and Hagen (1979), pp. 271--302.

Hahn, F. 1973. "The Winter of Our Discontent." Economica 40: 322--30.

1980. "Discussion," in Kareken and Wallace (1980), pp. 161--5.

1982. Money and Inflation. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

1986. "Arjo Klamer's Conversations with Economists: New Classical Economists and Opponents Speak out on the Current Controversy in Microeconomics." Economics and Philosophy 2: 275--81.

Hahn, F. and M. Hollis., eds. 1979. Philosophy and Economic Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hall, R. and C. Hitch. 1939. "Price Theory and Business Behaviour." Oxford Economic Papers 2: 12--45.

Hamminga, B. forthcoming. "Comment to Wade Hands on the Meaning and Measurement of Excess Content," in Blaug and de Marchi (1991).

Händler, E. 1980. "The Logical Structure of Modern Neoclassical Static Microeconomic Equilibrium Theory." Erkenntnis 15: 33--53.

Hands, D. 1979. "The Methodology of Economic Research Programs." Philosophy of the Social Sciences 9: 292--303.

1985a. "Karl Popper and Economic Methodology." Economics and Philosophy 1: 83--100.

1985b. "Second Thoughts on Lakatos." History of Political Economy 17: 1--16.

1985c. "The Structuralist View of Economic Theories: The Case of General Equilibrium in Particular." Economics and Philosophy 1: 303--36.

1988. "Ad Hocness in Economics and the Popperian Tradition," in de Marchi (1988), pp. 121--39.

1990. "Second Thoughts on 'Second Thoughts': Reconsidering the Lakatosian Progress of The General Theory." Review of Political Economy 2: 69--81.

forthcoming a. "The Problem of Excess Content: Economics, Novelty and a Long Popperian Tale," in Blaug and de Marchi (1991).

forthcoming b. "Essentialism and Novelty: Reply to Mäki and Hamminga," in Blaug and de Marchi (1991).

Hanfling, O. 1981a. Logical Positivism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

1981b. Essential Readings in Logical Positivism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Hanson, N. 1961. "Is there A Logic of Discovery?" in H. Feigl and G. Maxwell, eds. Current Issues in the Philosophy of Science. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, pp. 20--35.

Harburger, A. 1978. "On the Use of Distributional Weights in Social Cost-Benefit Analysis." Journal of Political Economy 86: s87--s120.

Hardin, R. 1988. Morality within the Limits of Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Harman, G. 1973. Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Harsanyi, J. 1955. "Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility." Journal of Political Economy 63: 309--21.

1977a. "Morality and the Theory of Rational Behavior." Social Research 44. Repr. Sen and Williams (1982), pp. 39--62.

1977b. Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hart, H. and T. Honoré. 1985. Causation in the Law. 2nd. edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hausman, D. 1980. "How to Do Philosophy of Economics," in P. Asquith and R. Giere, eds. PSA 1980. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 352--62.

1981a. Capital, Profits, and Prices: An Essay in the Philosophy of Economics. New York: Columbia University Press.

1981b. "John Stuart Mill's Philosophy of Economics." Philosophy of Science 48: 363--85.

1983. "The Limits of Economic Science," in N. Rescher, ed. The Limits of Lawfulness. Pittsburgh: Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, pp. 93--100.

1984. "Causal Priority." Nous 18: 261--79.

1986. "Causation and Experimentation." American Philosophical Quarterly 23: 143--54.

1988a. "An Appraisal of Popperian Methodology," in de Marchi (1988), pp. 65--86.

1988b. "Economic Methodology and Philosophy of Science," in Winston and Teichgraeber (1988), pp. 88--116.

1989a. "Arbitrage Arguments." Erkenntnis 30: 5--22.

1989b. "Economic Methodology in a Nutshell." Journal of Economic Perspectives 3: 115--28.

1989c. "Ceteris Paribus Clauses and Causality in Economics," in A. Fine, ed. PSA 1988, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 308--16.

1990a. "The Deductive Method." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15: 372--88.

1990b. "Supply and Demand Explanations and their Ceteris Paribus Clauses." Review of Political Economy 2: 168--86. Hausman, D., ed. 1984. The Philosophy of Economics: An Anthology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hayek, F. 1937. "Economics and Knowledge." Economica 4: 33--54.

1952. The Counter-Revolution of Science: Studies in the Abuse of Reason. New York: Free Press.

Helm, D. 1984. "Predictions and Causes: A Comparison of Friedman and Hicks on Method." Oxford Economic Papers 36 (Supplement): 118--34.

Hempel, C. 1965. Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. New York: Free Press.

1966. Philosophy of Natural Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Henderson, J. and R. Quandt. 1971. Microeconomic Theory: A Mathematical Approach. 2nd. edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hernstein, I. and J. Milnor. 1953. "An Axiomatic Approach to Measurable Utility." Econometrica 21: 291--7.

Hesse, M. 1974. The Structure of Scientific Inference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hicks, J. 1939. "The Foundations of Welfare Economics." Economic Journal 49: 696--712.

1946. Value and Capital. 2nd. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hicks, J. and R. Allen. 1934. "A Reconsideration of the Theory of Value." Economica. N.S. 1: 52--76 and 196--219.

Hirsch, A. (forthcoming) "John Stuart Mill on Verification and the Business of Science."

Hirsch, A. and N. de Marchi. 1986. "Making a Case When Theory is Unfalsifiable: Friedman's Monetary History." Economics and Philosophy 2: 1--22.

1990. Milton Friedman: Economics in Theory and Practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Hirsch, F. 1976. The Social Limits to Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hirschman, A. 1985. "Against Parsimony: Three Easy Ways of Complicating Some Categories of Economic Discourse." Economics and Philosophy 1: 7--22.

Hodgson, G. 1986. "Behind Methodological Individualism." Cambridge Journal of Economics 10: 211--24.

Holland, J., K. Holyoak, R. Nisbett, and P. Thagard. 1986. Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hollander, S. 1985. The Economics of John Stuart Mill. vol. 1 Theory and Method. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hollis, M. and E. Nell. 1975. Rational Economic Man: A Philosophical Critique of Neo-Classical Economics. London: Cambridge University Press.

Holt, C. 1986. "Preference Reversals and the Independence Axioms." American Economic Review 76: 508--15.

Homans, G. 1953. "The Cash Posters." American Sociological Review 19: 724--33.

Hoover, K. 1988. The New Classical Macroeconomics: A Sceptical Inquiry. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

1990. "The Logic of Causal Inference: Econometrics and the Conditional Analysis of Causation." Economics and Philosophy 6: 207--34.

Horwich, P. 1978. "An Appraisal of Glymour's Confirmation Theory." Journal of Philosophy 75: 98--113.

1982. Probability and Evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1987. Asymmetries in Time: Problems in the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Houtthaker, H. 1950. "Revealed Preference and the Utility Function." Economica 17: 159--74.

Howson, C. and P. Urbach. 1989. Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach. LaSalle, IL: Open Court.

Hoyningen-Huene, P. 1987. "Context of Discovery and Context of Justification." Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 18: 501--16.

Hull, D. 1988. Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hume, D. 1738. A Treatise of Human Nature. Repr. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

1748. An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Repr. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1955.

Hutchison, T. 1938. The Significance and Basic Postulates of Economic Theory. Repr. with a new Preface. New York: A.M. Kelley, 1960.

1941. "The Significance and Basic Postulates of Economic Theory: A Reply to Professor Knight." Journal of Political Economy 49: 732--50.

1956. "Professor Machlup on Verification in Economics." Southern Economic Journal 22: 476--83.

1960. "Methodological Prescriptions in Economics: A Reply." Economica 27: 158--60.

1977. Knowledge and Ignorance in Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1978. On Revolutions and Progress in Economic Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1981. The Politics and Philosophy of Economics: Marxians, Keynesians and Austrians. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

1988. "The Case for Falsification," in de Marchi (1988), pp. 169--82.

Jalladeau, J. 1978. "Research Program versus Paradigm in the Development of Economics." Journal of Economic Issues 12: 583--608.

Jeffrey, R. 1983a. "Bayesianism with a Human Face," in Earman (1983), pp. 133--56.

1983b. The Logic of Decision. 2nd. edn. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

Jensen, M. and W. Meckling. 1976. "Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure." Journal of Financial Economics 3: 305--60.

Jensen, N. 1967. "An Introduction to Bernoullian Utility Theory: I. Utility Functions." Swedish Journal of Economics 69: 163--83.

Johnson, G. and L. Zerby. 1973. What Economists Do About Values: Case Studies of their Answers to Questions They Don't Dare Ask. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Jones, E. 1977. "Positive Economics or What?" Economic Record 53: 350--63.

Kagel, J., R. Battalio, et. al. 1975. "Experimental Studies of Consumer Behavior Using Laboratory Animals." Economic Inquiry 13: 22--38.

Kahneman, D., J. Knetsch, and R. Thaler. 1986. "Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking." American Economic Review 76: 728--41.

1990. "Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem." Journal of Political Economy 98: 1325--48.

Kahneman, D. and A. Tversky. 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Making under Risk." Econometrica 47: 263--91.

Kaldor, N. 1939. "Welfare Propositions of Economics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility." Economic Journal 49: 549--52.

Kant, I. 1787. Critique of Pure Reason, tr. N. Kemp Smith. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965.

Kaplan, M. 1989. "Bayesianism without the Black Box." Philosophy of Science 56: 48--69.

Kareken, J. and N. Wallace, eds. 1980. Models of Monetary Economies. Minneapolis: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis: 1980.

Karelis, C. 1986. "Distributive Justice and the Public Good." Economics and Philosophy 2: 101--26.

Karni, E. and Z. Safra. 1987. "'Preference Reversal' and the Observability of Preferences by Experimental Methods." Econometrica 55: 675--85.

Katz, J. 1988. "The Refutation of Indeterminacy." Journal of Philosophy 85: 227--52.

Kaufmann, F. 1933. "On the Subject-Matter and Method of Economic Science." Economica 13: 381--401.

1934. "The Concept of Law in Economic Science." Review of Economic Studies 1: 102--9.

1942. "On the Postulates of Economic Theory." Social Research 9: 379--95.

1944. Methodology of the Social Sciences. London: Oxford University Press.

Kelly, K. 1987. "The Logic of Discovery." Philosophy of Science 54: 435--52.

Kelly, K. and C. Glymour. 1989. "Convergence to the Truth and Nothing but the Truth." Philosophy of Science 56: 185--220.

Keynes, J. N. 1917. The Scope and Method of Political Economy (4th edn.) (1st edn. 1891). Repr. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1955.

Kincaid, H. 1986. "Reduction, Explanation, and Individualism." Philosophy of Science 53: 492--513.

1989. "Confirmation, Complexity and Social Laws," in A. Fine, ed. PSA 1988, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 299--307.

Kitcher, P. 1982. Abusing Science: The Case Against Creationism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kitcher, P. and W. Salmon, eds. 1989. Scientific Explanation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Klamer, A. 1984. Conversations with Economists: New Classical Economists and Opponents Speak Out on the Current Controversy in Macroeconomics. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld.

Klamer, A. and D. Colander. 1990. The Making of An Economist. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Klamer, A., D. McCloskey, and R. Solow, eds. 1988. The Consequences of Economic Rhetoric. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Klant, J. 1984. The Rules of the Game. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Klappholz, K. 1964. "Value Judgments and Economics." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 15: 97--114.

Klappholz K. and J. Agassi. 1959. "Methodological Prescriptions in Economics." Economica 26: 60--74.

1960. "Methodological Prescriptions in Economics: A Rejoinder." Economica 27: 160--1.

Knies, K. 1853. Die Politische Oekonomie Vom Standpunkte der Geschichtlichen Methode. 2nd edn. Braunschweig: C.A. Schwetschke, 1883.

Knight, F. 1921. "Traditional Economic Theory -- Discussion." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 22: 143--6.

1935a. "Economics and Human Action," from Knight 1935b. Repr. in Hausman, ed. (1984), pp. 141--8.

1935b. The Ethics of Competition and Other Essays. New York and London: Harper and Brothers.

1940. "What is 'Truth' in Economics?" Journal of Political Economy 48: 1--32.

1941. "The Significance and Basic Postulates of Economic Theory: A Rejoinder." Journal of Political Economy 49: 750--3.

1961. "Methodology in Economics." Southern Economic Journal 27: 185--93, 273--82.

Koopmans, T. 1949. "Identification Problems in Economic Model Construction." Econometrica 17: 125--44.

1957. Three Essays on the State of Economic Science. New York: McGraw-Hill.

1979. "Economics Among the Sciences." American Economic Review 69: 1--13.

Krajewski, W. 1977. Correspondence Principle and the Growth of Knowledge. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Kreps, D., P. Milgrom, J. Roberts, and R. Wilson. 1982. "Rational Cooperation in the Finitely Repeated Prisoners' Dilemma." Journal of Economic Theory 27: 245--52.

Krupp, S., ed. 1966. The Structure of Economic Science. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Kuenne, R. 1971. Eugen von Böhm Bawerk. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kuhn, T. 1957. The Copernican Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1974. "Second Thoughts on Paradigms," in Suppe (1977), pp. 459--82.

Kuipers, T., ed. 1987. What is Closer-to-the Truth? A Parade of Approaches to Truthlikeness. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and Humanities. 10. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Kunin, L. and F. Weaver. 1971. "On the Structure of Scientific Revolutions in Economics." History of Political Economy 3: 391--7.

Kyburg, H. 1970. Probability and Inductive Logic. London: Macmillan.

1974. The Logical Foundations of Statistical Inference. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Lakatos, I. 1968. "Changes in the Problem of Inductive Logic." Repr. in Lakatos, vol. 2 (1978b), pp. 128--200.

1970. "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes," in Lakatos and Musgrave (1970), pp. 91--196 and in Lakatos, vol. 1 (1978b), pp. 8--101.

1971. "History of Science and its Rational Reconstructions." Repr. in Lakatos, vol. 1 (1978b), pp. 102--38.

1974. "Popper on Demarcation and Induction," in P. Schlipp, ed. The Philosophy of Karl Popper. LaSalle, IL, Open Court, pp. 241--73. Repr. in Lakatos, vol. 1 (1978b), pp. 139--67.

1976. Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery, eds. J. Worrall and E. Zahar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1978a. "Anomalies versus 'Crucial Experiments' (a Rejoinder to Professor Grünbaum," in Lakatos, vol. 2 (1978b), pp. 211--23.

1978b. Philosophical Papers. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakatos, I. and A. Musgrave, eds. 1970. Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakatos, I. and E. Zahar. 1976. "Why Did Copernicus's Research Programme Supersede Ptolemy's?" Repr in Lakatos, vol. 1 (1978b), pp. 168--92.

Langley, P. H. Simon, G. Bradshaw and J. Zytkow. 1987. Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Process. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Latis, S. 1976. "A Research Programme in Economics," in Latsis, ed. (1976), pp. 1--42.

Latsis, S., ed. 1976. Method and Appraisal in Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laudan, L. 1977. Progress and its Problems. Berkeley: University of California Press.

1981. "A Confutation of Convergent Realism." Philosophy of Science 48: 19--49.

1983. "The Demise of the Demarcation Problem." Working Papers in Science and Technology 2: 7--36. Virginia Tech Center for the Study of Science in Society.

Leamer, E. 1984. "Vector Autoregressions for Causal Inference?" delivered at 1984 Carnegie-Rochester Conference.

Leibenstein, H. 1976. Beyond Economic Man: A New Foundation for Economics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Leijonhufvud, A. 1968. On Keynesian Economics and the Economics of Keynes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

1976. "Schools, 'Revolutions' and Research Programmes in Economic Theory," in Latsis, ed. (1976), pp. 65--100.

Leontief, W. 1971. "Theoretical Assumptions and Nonobserved Facts." American Economic Review 61: 1--7.

Lerner, A. 1959a. "Consumption-Loan Interest and Money." Journal of Political Economy 67: 512--18.

1959b. "Rejoinder." Journal of Political Economy 67: 523--5.

Lester, R.A. 1946. "Shortcomings of Marginal Analysis for Wage-Employment Problems." American Economic Review 36: 62--82.

1947. "Marginal, Minimum Wages, and Labor Markets." American Economic Review 37: 135--48.

Levi, I. 1967. Gambling with Truth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

1980. The Enterprise of Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

1986. "The Paradoxes of Allais and Ellsberg." Economics and Philosophy 2: 23--53.

1989. "Reply to Maher." Economics and Philosophy 5: 79--90.

1991. "Reply to Maher and Kashima." Economics and Philosophy 7.

Levi, I. and S. Morgenbesser. 1964. "Beliefs and Dispositions." American Philosophical Quarterly 1: 221--32.

Levine, A., E. Sober, and E. Wright. 1987. "Marxism and Methodological Individualism." New Left Review 162 (March/April): 67--84.

Levison, A. 1974. "Popper, Hume, and the Traditional Problem of Induction," in Schilpp (1974), pp. 322--31.

Levy, D. 1985. "The Impossibility of a Complete Methodological Individualist Reduction When Knowledge is Imperfect." Economics and Philosophy 1: 101--9.

Lewis, D. 1973a. "Causation." Journal of Philosophy 70: 556--67.

1973b. Counterfactuals. Cambridge: MA, Harvard University Press.

1979. "Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow." Nous 13: 455--76.

1986. "Postscripts to 'Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow,'" in Philosophical Papers, vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 52--66.

Lichtenstein, S. and P. Slovic. 1971. "Reversals of Preference Between Bids and Choices in Gambling Decisions." Journal of Experimental Psychology 89: 46--55.

1973. "Response-Induced Reversals of Preference in Gambling: An extended Replication in Las Vegas." Journal of Experimental Psychology 101: 16--20.

Lieberson, J. 1982a. "Karl Popper." Social Research 49: 68--115.

1982b. "The Romantic Rationalist." New York Review of Books 29 (December 2).

Lindman, H. 1971. "Inconsistent Preferences Among Gambles." Journal of Experimental Psychology 89: 390--7.

Lipsey, R. 1966. An Introduction to Positive Economics. 2nd. edn. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.

Lipsey, R. and K. Lancaster. 1956--7. "The General Theory of the Second Best." Review of Economic Studies 24: 11--31.

Little, I. 1957. A Critique of Welfare Economics. 2nd. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Loomes, G. and R. Sugden. 1982. "Regret Theory: an Alternative Theory of Rational Choice under Uncertainty." Economic Journal 92: 805--24.

1983. "A Rationale for Preference Reversal." American Economic Review 73: 428--32.

Loomes, G., C. Starmer, and R. Sugden. 1989. "Preference Reversal: Information-Processing Effect or Rational Nontransitive Choice." Economic Journal (Conference Supplement) 99: 140--51.

Lucas, R. 1976. "Econometric Policy Evaluation: A Critique." Journal of Monetary Economics, Supplemental Series 1: 19--46, 62.

Luce, R. and H. Raiffa. 1957. Games and Decisions. New York: Wiley.

Lukes, S. 1973. "Methodological Individualism Reconsidered," in Ryan (1973), pp. 119--30.

McCallum, B. 1983. "The Role of Overlapping Generations Models in Monetary Economics," in K. Brunner and A. Meltzer, eds. Theory, Policy and Institutions: Papers from the Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 129--64.

McClennen, E. 1983. "Sure Thing Doubts," in B. Stigum and F. Wenstop, eds. Foundations of Utility and Risk Theory with Applications. Dordrecht: Reidel.

1990. Rationality and Dynamic Choice: Foundational Explorations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McCloskey, D. 1983. "The Rhetoric of Economics." Journal of Economic Literature 21: 481--517.

1985a. The Rhetoric of Economics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

1985b. "Sartorial Epistemology in Tatters: A Reply to Martin Hollis." Economics and Philosophy 1: 134--8.

1987. The Writing of Economics. New York: Macmillan.

1988a. "Thick and Thin Methodologies in the History of Economic Thought," in de Marchi (1988), pp. 245--58.

1988b. "Towards a Rhetoric of Economics," in Winston and Teichgraeber (1988), pp. 13--29.

1988c. "Two Replies and a Dialogue on the Rhetoric of Economics: Mäki, Rappaport, Rosenberg." Economics and Philosophy 4: 150--66.

1989. "The Very Idea of Epistemology: A Comment on Standards." Economics and Philosophy 5: 1--6.

1990. If You're So Smart: The Narrative of Economic Expertise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

MacCrimmon, K. and S. Larsson. 1979. "Utility Theory: Axioms versus 'Paradoxes,'" in Allais and Hagen (1979), pp. 333--409.

Macdonald, G. 1986. "Modified Methodological Individualism." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86: 199--211.

Mach, E. 1942. The Science of Mechanics. La Salle, IL: Open Court.

Machina, M. 1987. "Choice under Uncertainty: Problems Solved and Unsolved." Journal of Economic Perspectives 1: 121--54.

Machlup, F. 1946. "Marginal Analysis and Empirical Research." American Economic Review 36: 519--54.

1947. "Rejoinder to an Antimarginalist." American Economic Review 37: 148--54.

1955. "The Problem of Verification in Economics." Southern Economic Journal 22: 1--21.

1956. "Rejoinder to a Reluctant Ultra-Empiricist." Southern Economic Journal 22: 483--93.

1960. "Operational Concepts and Mental Constructs in Model and Theory Formation." Giornale Degli Economisti 19: 553--82.

1963. Essays on Economic Semantics, ed. M. Miller. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

1964. "Professor Samuelson on Theory and Realism." American Economic Review 54: 733--6.

1969. "If Matter Could Talk." Repr. in Machlup 1978, pp. 309--32.

1978. Methodology of Economics and Other Social Sciences. New York: Academic Press.

MacIntyre, A. 1967. "The Idea of a Social Science." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 41: 95--114.

MacKay, A. 1980. Arrow's Theorem: The Paradox of Social Choice. A Case Study in the Philosophy of Economics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

1986. "Extended Sympathy and Interpersonal Utility Comparisons." Journal of Philosophy 83: 305--22.

McKenzie, R. 1979. "The Non-Rational Domain and the Limits of Economic Analysis." Southern Economic Journal 26: 145--57.

Mackie, J. 1974. The Cement of the Universe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maher, P. 1989. "Levi on the Allais and Ellsberg Paradoxes." Economics and Philosophy 5: 69--78.

Maher, P. and Y. Kashima. 1991. "On the Descriptive Adequacy of Levi's Decision Theory." Economics and Philosophy 7.

Mäki, U. 1986. "Rhetoric and the Expense of Coherence: A Reinterpretation of Milton Friedman's Methodology." Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology 4: 127--43.

1988a. "How to Combine Rhetoric and Realism in the Methodology of Economics." Economics and Philosophy 4: 89--109.

1988b. "Realism, Economics, and Rhetoric: A Rejoinder to McCloskey." Economics and Philosophy 4: 167--9.

1990a. "Friedman and Realism." Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology 10:

1990b. "Mengerian Economics in Realist Perspective." History of Political Economy 22: 289--310.

1990c. "Methodology of Economics: Complaints and Guidelines." Finnish Economic Papers 3: 77--84.

1990d. "Scientific Realism and Austrian Explanation." Review of Political Economy 2: 310--44.

forthcoming. "On the Method of Isolation in Economics," in C. Dilworth, ed. Intelligibility in Science in Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Malinvaud, E. 1972. Lectures on Microeconomic Theory, tr. A. Silvey. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

1987. "The Overlapping Generations Model in 1947." Journal of Economic Literature 25: 103--5.

Marschak, J. 1969. "On Econometric Tools." Synthese 20: 483--8.

Marshall, A. 1930. Principles of Economics. 8th edn. London: Macmillan.

Marx, K. 1867. Capital, vol. 1, tr. S. Moore and E. Aveling. New York: International Publishers, 1967.

Marwell, G. and R. Ames. 1981. "Economists Free Ride. Does Anyone Else? Experiments on the Provision of Public Goods. IV." Journal of Public Economics 15: 295--310.

Mas-Collell, A. 1974. "An Equilibrium Existence Theorem without Complete or Transitive Preferences." Journal of Mathematical Economics 1: 237--46.

Mason, W. 1980--1. "Some Negative Thoughts on Friedman's Positive Economics." Journal of Post-Keynesian Economics 3: 235--55.

Masterman, M. 1970. "The Nature of a Paradigm," in Lakatos and Musgrave (1970), pp. 59--90.

Mauss, M. 1954. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies, tr. I. Cunnison. London: Cohen and West.

Maxwell, G. 1962. "The Ontological Status of Theoretical Entities," in H. Feigl and G. Maxwell, eds. (1962), pp. 3--27.

Maxwell, G. and R. Anderson, J., eds. 1975. Induction, Probability and Confirmation, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 6. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Meckling, W. 1960a. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest: A Comment." Journal of Political Economy 68: 72--6.

1960b. "Rejoinder." Journal of Political Economy 68: 83--4.

Melitz, J. 1965. "Friedman and Machlup on the Significance of Testing Economic Assumptions." Journal of Political Economy 73: 37--60.

Menger, C. 1883. Problems of Economics and Sociology, ed. L. Schneider, tr. F. Nock. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963.

Mill, James. 1820. An Essay on Government, ed. Currin V. Shields. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1955.

Mill, J. S. 1836. "On the Definition of Political Economy and the Method of Investigation Proper to It." Repr. in Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, vol. 4. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967.

1843. A System of Logic. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1949.

1871. Principles of Political Economy. 7th edn., ed. W. Ashley (1909). Repr. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1976.

Miller, D. 1974. "Popper's Qualitative Theory of Verisimilitude." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25: 166--77.

1982. "Conjectural Knowledge: Popper's Solution to the Problem of Induction," in P. Levinson, ed. In Pursuit of Truth: Essays in Honor of Karl Popper's 80th Birthday. Hassocks: Harvester, pp. 17--49.

Miller, H. and W. Williams, eds. 1982. The Limits of Utilitarianism. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

Miller, R. 1978. "Methodological Individualism and Social Explanation." Philosophy of Science 45: 387--414.

1987. Fact and Method: Explanation, Confirmation and Reality in the Natural and the Social Sciences. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Minford, P. and D. Peel. 1983. Rational Expectations and the New Macroeconomics. Oxford: Martin Robertson & Co.

Mirowski, P. 1989. "How Not to Do Things with Metaphors: Paul Samuelson and the Science of Neoclassical Economics." Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 20: 175--91.

1990. More Heat Than Light. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mises, L. von. 1949. Human Action. A Treatise on Economics. New Haven, Yale University Press.

1978. The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science: An Essay on Method. 2nd. edn. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews.

1981. Epistemological Problems of Economics, tr. G. Reisman. New York: New York University Press.

Mishan, E. 1971. Cost Benefit Analysis: An Introduction. New York: Praeger.

1981. An Introduction to Normative Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Modigliani, F. and R. Brumberg. 1955. "Utility Analysis and the Consumption Function," in K. Kurihara, ed. Post-Keynesian Economics. London: Allen & Unwin, pp. 383--436.

Mongin, P. 1986a. "Are 'All-and-Some' Statements Falsifiable After All? The Example of Utility Theory." Economics and Philosophy 2: 185--96.

1986b. "La Controverse sur l'Entreprise (1940--1950) et la Formation de l'Irréalisme Méthodologique." Economies et Sociétes, série Oeconomia 5: 91--151.

forthcoming. "The Early Full-Cost Debate and the Problem of Empirically Testing Profit-Maximization." Journal of Post-Keynesian Economics.

Morgenbesser, S. 1956. "Theories and Schemata in the Social Sciences." Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

1969. "The Realist-Instrumentalist Controversy," in S. Morgenbesser, P. Suppes, and M. White, eds. Philosophy, Science, and Method Structure of Science. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, pp. 106--52.

1970. "Is It a Science?" in D. Emmett and A. MacIntyre, eds. Sociological Theory and Philosophical Analysis. New York: Macmillan, pp. 20--35.

Morris, H. undated. "Evolution, Creation and the Public Schools." Impact Series, #1. San Diego: Institute for Creation Research.

Mowen, J. and J. Gentry. 1980. "Investigation of the Preference-Reversal Phenomenon in a New Product Introduction Task." Journal of Applied Psychology 65: 715--22.

Murphy, N. 1989. "Another Look at Novel Facts." Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 20: 385--8.

Musgrave, A. 1981. "'Unreal Assumptions' in Economic Theory: The F-Twist Untwisted." Kyklos 34: 377--87.

Muth, J. 1961. "Rational Expectations and the Theory of Price Movements." Econometrica 29: 315--35.

Myrdal, G. 1955. The Political Element in the Development of Economic Thought, tr. P. Streeten. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Nagel, E. 1961. The Structure of Science. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

1963. "Assumptions in Economic Theory." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 53: 211--19.

Nelson, A. 1986. "New Individualistic Foundations for Economics." Nous 20, 469--90.

Nelson, R. and S. Winter. 1974. "Neoclassical vs. Evolutionary Theory of Economic Growth: Critique and Prospectus." Economic Journal 84: 886--905.

1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Neuberg, L. 1988. Conceptual Anomalies in Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nickles, T. 1980. Scientific Discovery, Logic and Rationality. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Nickles, T., ed. 1980. Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Niiniluoto, I. 1983. "Novel Facts and Bayesianism." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34: 375--9.

Nisbett, R. and P. Thagard. 1982. "Variability and Confirmation." Philosophical Studies 42: 379--94.

Nooteboom, B. 1986. "Plausibility in Economics." Economics and Philosophy 2: 197--224.

North, D. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nowak, L. 1972. "Laws of Science, Theory, Measurement." Philosophy of Science 39: 533--48.

1980. The Structure of Idealization: Towards a Systematic Interpretation of the Marxian Idea of Science. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Nozick, Robert 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.

Okun, A. 1975. Equality and Efficiency: the Big Tradeoff. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Okuno, M. and I. Zilcha. 1983. "Optimal Steady-State in Stationary Consumption-Loan Type Models." Journal of Economic Theory 31: 355--63.

Olson, M., Jr 1984. "Beyond Keynesianism and Monetarism." Economic Inquiry 22: 297--322.

O'Neill, J. 1973. Modes of Individualism and Collectivism. London: Heineman.

Orcutt, G. 1952. "Actions, Consequences and Causal Relations." Review of Economics and Statistics 34: 305--13.

Papandreou, A. 1958. Economics as a Science. Chicago: Lippincott.

1963. "Theory Construction and Empirical Meaning in Economics." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 53: 205--10.

Pareto, V. 1909. Manual of Political Economy, tr. A. Schwier. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1971.

Pettit, P. and R. Sugden. 1989. "The Backward Induction Paradox." Journal of Philosophy 86: 169--82.

Pheby, J. 1988. Methodology and Economics: A Critical Introduction. London: Macmillan.

Pitt, J., ed. 1981. Philosophy in Economics. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Poincaré, H. 1905. Science and Hypothesis. Repr. New York: Dover, 1952.

Pommerehne, W. F. Schneider, and P. Zweifel. 1982. "Economic Theory of Choice and the Preference Reversal Phenomenon: A Reexamination." American Economic Review 72: 569--74.

Pope, D. and R. Pope. 1972. "Predictionists, Assumptionists and the Relatives of the Assumptionists." Australian Economic Papers 11: 224--8.

Popper, K. 1957. The Poverty of Historicism. New York: Harper & Row.

1966. The Open Society and Its Enemies. vol. II, 5th edn. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.

1968. The Logic of Scientific Discovery (rev. edn.) London: Hutchinson & Co.

1969a. Conjectures and Refutations; The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. 3rd. edn. London: Routledge & Kegan-Paul.

1969b. "Die Logik der Sozialwissenschaften," in Adorno (1969), pp. 103--23.

1969c. "Truth, Rationality and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge," in Popper (1969a), pp. 215--50. 1972. Objective Knowledge; An Evolutionary Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

1974. "Replies to my Critics," in Schilpp (1974), pp. 961--1200.

1976. The Unended Quest. La Salle, IL: Open Court.

1978. "Natural Selection and the Emergence of Mind." Dialectica 32: 339--55.

1979. Die Beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie. Tubingen: Mohr-Siebeck.

1983. Realism and the Aim of Science; From the Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery, ed. W. Bartley, III. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.

Posner, R. 1972. Economic Analysis of Law. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Putnam, H. 1962. "The Analytic and the Synthetic," in Feigl and Maxwell (1962), pp. 350--97.

1974. "The 'Corroboration' of Theories," in Schilpp (1974), pp. 221--40.

Quine, W. 1953. "Two Dogmas of Empiricism," in From a Logical Point of View. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 20--46.

1960. Word and Object. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.

1969. "Epistemology Naturalized," in Ontological Relativity and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 69--90.

Rachlin, H., R. Battalio, J. Kagel, and L. Green. 1981. "Maximization Theory in Behavioral Psychology." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4: 371--418.

Railton, P. 1980. "Explaining Explanation: A Realist Account of Scientific Explanation." Ph. D. Dissertation, Princeton University.

Ramsey, F. 1926. "Truth and Probability," in R. Braithwaite, ed. The Foundations of Mathematics and other Logical Essays. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 156--98.

Rawls, J. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

1982. "Social Unity and Primary Goods," in Sen and Williams (1982), pp. 159--86.

Redman, D. 1989. Economic Methodology: A Bibliography with References to Works in the Philosophy of Science, 1860--1988. New York: Greenwood Press.

1990. Economics and the Philosophy of Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reichenbach, H. 1938. Experience and Prediction. An Analysis of the Foundations and the Structure of Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1959. Modern Philosophy of Science. London: Routledge.

Reilly, R. 1982. "Preference Reversal: Further Evidence and Some Suggested Modifications in Experimental Design." American Economic Review 72: 576--84.

Rescher, N. 1970. Scientific Explanation. New York: Macmillan.

Resnik, M. 1987. Choices: An Introduction to Decision Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ricardo, David 1817. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. vol. 1 of The Collected Works of David Ricardo, ed. P. Sraffa and M. Dobb. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951.

Rizzo, M. 1982. "Mises and Lakatos: A Reformulation of Austrian Methodology," in I. Kirzner, eds. Method, Process and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honour of Ludwig von Mises. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.

Robbins, L. 1932, 1935. An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science. 2nd. edn. 1935. London: Macmillan.

1979. "On Latsis' Method and Appraisal in Economics: A Review Essay." Philosophy of the Social Sciences 17: 996--1004.

Rorty, R. 1979. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Roscher, W. 1874. Geschichte der National-oekonomik in Deutschland. Munich: R. Oldenbourg.

Rosenberg, A. 1976. Microeconomic Laws: A Philosophical Analysis. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

1980. Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science. Baltimore: Johns-Hopkins University Press.

1983. "If Economics Isn't a Science: What Is It?" Philosophical Forum 14: 296--314.

1986. "Lakatosian Consolations for Economics." Economics and Philosophy 2: 127--40.

1987. "Weintraub's Aims: A Brief Rejoinder." Economics and Philosophy 3: 143--4.

1988a. "Economics is Too Important to Be Left to the Rhetoricians." Economics and Philosophy 4: 129--49.

1988b. Philosophy of Social Science. Boulder: Westview Press.

forthcoming. An Essay in the Philosophy of Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rosenkranz, R. 1977. Inference, Method and Decision. Dordrecht: Reidel.

1983. "Why Glymour Is a Bayesian," in Earman (1983), pp. 69--98.

Roth, A. 1987. "Bargaining Phenomena and Bargaining Theory," in Roth, ed. (1987), pp. 14--41.

1988. "Laboratory Experimentation in Economics: A Methodological Overview." Economic Journal 98: 974--1031.

Roth, A., ed. 1987. Laboratory Experimentation in Economics: Six Points of View. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rothbard, M. 1957. "In Defense of 'Extreme Apriorism.'" Southern Economic Journal 23: 314--20.

1976. "Praxeology: The Methodology of Austrian Economics," in Dolan (1976), pp. 19--39.

Rotwein, E. 1959. "On 'The Methodology of Positive Economics.'" Quarterly Journal of Economics 73: 554--75.

1962. "On 'The Methodology of Positive Economics' Reply." Quarterly Journal of Economics 76: 666--8.

Runciman, W. 1972. A Critique of Max Weber's Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Russell, B. 1905. "On Denoting." Repr. in B. Russell, Logic and Knowledge: Essays 1901--50. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, pp. 39--56.

1912. "On the Notion of Cause." Repr. in B. Russell, Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays. London: George Allen & Unwin, pp. 132--51.

Russell, T. and R. Thaler. 1985. "The Relevance of Quasi Rationality in Competitive Markets." American Economic Review 75: 1071--82.

Ryan, A. ed. 1973. The Philosophy of Social Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Safra, Z., U. Segal, and A. Spivak. 1990. "Preference Reversal and Nonexpected Utility Behavior." American Economic Review 80: 922--30.

Sagoff, M. 1986. "Values and Preferences." Ethics 96: 301--16.

Salmon, W. 1971. "Statistical Explanation," in W. Salmon, ed. Statistical Explanation and Statistical Relevance. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 29--88.

1975. "Confirmation and Relevance," in G. Maxwell and R. Anderson, eds. (1975), pp. 5--36. Repr. in P. Achinstein, ed. The Concept of Evidence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 95--123.

1981. "Rational Prediction." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32: 115--25.

1985. Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

1990. Four Decades of Scientific Explanation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Samuels, W. 1980. ed. The Methodology of Economic Thought: Critical Papers from the Journal of Economic Thought [Issues]. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.

Samuelson, P. 1938. "A Note on the Pure Theory of Consumer's Behavior." Economica 5: 61--71.

1947. Foundations of Economic Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

1950. "Evaluation of Real National Income." Oxford Economic Papers. N.S. 2: 1--29.

1958. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money." Journal of Political Economy 66: 467--82.

1959. "Reply." Journal of Political Economy 67: 518--22.

1960. "Infinity, Unanimity and Singularity: A Reply." Journal of Political Economy 68: 76--83.

1963. "Problems of Methodology -- Discussion." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 53: 232--36.

1964. "Theory and Realism: A Reply." American Economic Review 54: 736--40.

1965. "Professor Samuelson on Theory and Realism: Reply." American Economic Review 55: 1162--72.

Sargent, T. 1987. Dynamic Macroeconomic Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Savage, L. 1972. The Foundations of Statistics. New York: Dover.

Scheffler, I. 1967. Science and Subjectivity. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Schick, F. 1986. "Money Pumps and Dutch Bookies." Journal of Philosophy 83: 112--19.

1987. "Rationality: A Third Dimension." Economics and Philosophy 3: 49--66.

Schilpp, P. 1939. The Philosophy of John Dewey. La Salle, IL: Open Court.

1974. The Philosophy of Karl Popper. La Salle, IL: Open Court.

Schkade, D. and E. Johnson. 1989. "Cognitive Processes in Preference Reversals." Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 44: 203--31.

Schlesinger, G. 1976. Confirmation and Confirmability. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schlicht, E. 1984. "Cognitive Dissonance in Economics." Schriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik, Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften. Neue Folge 141: 61--81.

Schmoller, G. 1888. Zur Literatur-geschichte der Staats- und Sozialwissenschaften. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.

1898. Über einige Grundfragen der Sozialpolitik und der Volkswirtshaftslehre. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.

Schumpeter, J. 1954. History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schwartz, T. 1982. "What Welfare Is Not," in Miller and Williams (1982), pp. 195--206.

Segal, U. 1988. "Does the Preference Reversal Phenomenon Necessarily Contradict the Independence Axiom?" American Economic Review 78: 233--6.

Seidenfeld, T., M. Schervish, and J. Kadane. 1987. "Decisions Without Ordering." Technical Report N. 391, Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University.

Sen, A. 1970. Collective Welfare and Social Choice. San Francisco: Holden-Day.

1971 "Choice Functions and Revealed Preference." Review of Economic Studies 38: 307--17.

1973 "Behaviour and the Concept of Preference." Economica 40: 241--59.

1977. "Rational Fools," in Hahn and Hollis (1981), pp. 87--109.

1979a "Personal Utilities and Public Judgment: or What's Wrong with Welfare Economics?" Economic Journal 89: 537--58.

1979b "Utilitarianism and Welfarism." Journal of Philosophy 76: 463--88.

Sen, A. and B. Williams, eds. 1982. Utilitarianism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Senior, N. 1836. Outline of the Science of Political Economy. Repr. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1965.

Sensat, J. 1988. "Methodological Individualism and Marxism." Economics and Philosophy 4: 189--220.

Shapere, D. 1964. "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Philosophical Review 73: 383--94.

1969. "Towards a Post-positivistic Interpretation of Science," in P. Achinstein and S. Barkers, eds. The Legacy of Logical Positivism. Baltimore: Johns-Hopkins University Press, pp. 115--60.

1974. "Scientific Theories and Their Domains," in Suppe (1977), pp. 518--65.

1984. Reason and the Search for Knowledge. Dordrecht: Reidel.

1985. "Objectivity, Rationality, and Scientific Change," in P. Asquith and P. Kitcher, eds. PSA 1984, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 637--63.

Shell, K. 1971. "Notes on the Economics of Infinity." Journal of Political Economy 79: 1002--11.

Simon, H. 1953. "Causal Ordering and Identifiability." Repr. in Models of Discovery and other Topics in the Methods of Science. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977, pp. 53--80.

1954. "Bandwagon and Underdog Effects of Election Predictions." Public Opinion Quarterly 18: 245--53.

1957. Models of Man: Social and Rational. New York: Wiley.

1959. "Theories of Decision-Making in Economics and Behavioral Science." American Economic Review 49: 253--83.

1963. "Problems of Methodology -- Discussion." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 53: 229--31.

1976. "From Substantive to Procedural Rationality," in Latsis, ed. (1976), pp. 129--48.

1978. "Rationality as Process and as Product of Thought." American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 68: 1--16.

1979. "Rational Decision Making in Business Organizations." American Economic Review 69: 493--513.

1982. Models of Bounded Rationality. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sims, C. 1972. "Money, Income and Causality." American Economic Review 62: 540--52.

1977. "Exogeneity and Causal Orderings in Macroeconomic Models," in C. Sims, ed. New Methods in Business Cycle Research. Minneapolis: Federal Reserve Bank, pp. 23--43.

1981. "What Kind of Science is Economics? A Review Article on Causality in Economics by John R. Hicks." Journal of Political Economy 89: 578--83.

Skinner, B. 1953. Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free Press.

1974. About Behaviorism. New York: Random House.

Slovic, P., D. Griffin, and A. Tversky. 1990. "Compatibility Effects in Judgment and Choice," in R. M. Hogarth, ed. Insights in Decision Making: Theory and Applications. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 5--27.

Slovic, P. and S. Lichtenstein. 1968. "Relative Importance of Probabilities and Payoffs in Risk Taking." Journal of Experimental Psychology Monograph 78, Pt. 2: 1--18.

1983. "Preference Reversals: A Broader Perspective." American Economic Review 73: 596--605.

Slovic, P. and A. Tversky. 1974. "Who Accepts Savage's Axiom?" Behavioral Science 19: 368--73.

Smith, A. 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Repr. New York: Random House, 1937.

Smith, M. 1990. "What is New in "New Structuralist" Analyses of Earnings?" American Journal of Sociology 55: 827--41.

Smith, V. 1982. "Microeconomic Systems as an Experimental Science." American Economic Review 72: 923--55.

Smith, V. ed. 1978. Research in Experimental Economics. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press.

Sneed, J. 1971. The Logical Structure of Mathematical Physics. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Sober, E. 1983. "Equilibrium Explanation." Philosophical Studies 43: 201--10.

1985. "Review of Sociobiology and the Preemption of the Social Sciences," Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15: 89--93.

1988. Reconstructing the Past: Parsimony, Evolution and Inference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Solow, R. 1971. "Science and Ideology in Economics." The Public Interest 23: 94--107.

Stalnaker, R. 1968. "A Theory of Conditionals." Repr. in E. Sosa, ed. Causation and Conditionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975, pp. 165--79.

1972. "Pragmatics," in D. Davidson and G. Harman, eds. Semantics of Natural Language. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 380--97.

Stanfield, R. 1974. "Kuhnian Revolutions and the Keynesian Revolution." Journal of Economic Issues 8: 97--109.

Stegmueller, W. 1976. The Structure and Dynamics of Theories, tr. William Wohlhueter. New York: Springer-Verlag.

1979. The Structuralist View of Theories. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Stegmueller, W., W. Balzer, and W. Spohn, eds. 1982. Philosophy of Economics: Proceedings, Munich, July 1981. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Stewart, I. 1979. Reasoning and Method in Economics. An Introduction to Economic Methodology. London: McGraw-Hill.

Stigler, G. J. 1947. "Professor Lester and the Marginalists." American Economic Review, 37: 154--7.

1959. "The Politics of Political Economists." Quarterly Journal of Economics. Repr. in Essays in the History of Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965, pp. 51--65.

1976. "Do Economists Matter?" Southern Economic Journal. Repr. in The Economist as Preachers and Other Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982, pp. 57--67.

Stiglitz, J. 1982. "Ownership, Control, and Efficient Markets: Some Paradoxes in the Theory of Capital Markets," in K. Boyer and W. Shepherd, eds. Economic Regulation: Essays in Honor of James R. Nelson. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 311--40.

Stouffer, S. E. Suchman, L. de Vinney, S. Star, and R. Williams, Jr 1949. The American Soldier: Adjustment During Army Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Stouffer, S. A. Lumsdaine, M. Lumsdaine, R. Williams, M. Smith, I. Jarvis, S. Star, and L. Cottrell, Jr 1949. The American Soldier: Combat and its Aftermath. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Strasnick, S. 1981. "Neo-Utilitarian Ethics and the Ordinal Representation Assumption," in Pitt (1981), pp. 63--92.

Strotz, R. 1960. "Interdependence as a Specification Error." Econometrica 28: 428--42.

Strotz, R. and H. Wold. 1960. "Recursive vs. Non-recursive Systems: An Attempt at Synthesis." Econometrica 28: 417--27.

Sugden, R. 1986. "New Developments in the Theory of Choice Under Uncertainty." Bulletin of Economic Research 38: 1--24.

Suppe, F. 1974. "Theories and Phenomena," in W. Leinfeller and W. Kohler, eds. Developments in the Methodology of Social Science. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 45--92.

1988. The Semantic View of Theories. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Suppe, F., ed. 1977. The Structure of Scientific Theories. 2nd. edn. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Suppes, P. 1957. Introduction to Logic. New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold

Thagard, P. 1988. Computational Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Thagard, P. and R. Nisbett. 1982. "Variability and Confirmation." Philosophical Studies 42: 379--94.

Thaler, R. 1980. "Toward a Positive Theory of Consumer Choice." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 1: 39--60.

1987. "The Psychology of Choice and the Assumptions of Economics," in Roth, ed. (1987), pp. 99--130.

Thurow, L. 1975. Generating Inequality: Mechanisms of Distribution in the U.S. Economy. New York: Basic Books.

1980. The Zero-Sum Society. New York: Basic Books. Repr. and cited in the Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981 edition.

Tichy, P. 1974. "On Popper's Definition of Verisimilitude." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25: 155--60.

Titmuss, R. 1971. The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy. New York: Random House.

Tobin, J. 1980. "Discussion," in Kareken and Wallace (1980), pp. 83--90.

Toulmin, S. 1953. The Philosophy of Science: An Introduction. London: Hutchinson.

Toulmin, Stephen and June Goodfield. 1961. The Fabric of the Heavens: The Development of Astronomy and Dynamics. New York: Harper Torchbooks.

Tversky, A. and D. Kahneman. 1981. "The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice." Science 211: 453--8.

Tversky, A., P. Slovic, and D. Kahneman. 1990. "The Causes of Preference Reversal." American Economic Review 80: 204--17.

Tversky, A. and R. Thaler. 1990. "Preference Reversals." Journal of Economic Perspectives 4: 201--11.

Ullmann-Margalit, E. and S. Morgenbesser. 1977. "Picking and Choosing." Social Research 44: 757--85.

van Fraassen, B. 1980. The Scientific Image. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

1989. Laws and Symmetry. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

1983a. "Glymour on Evidence and Explanation," in Earman (1983), pp. 165--76.

1983b. "Theory Comparison and Relevant Evidence," in Earman (1983), pp. 27--52.

Varian, H. 1985. "Dworkin on Equality of Resources." Economics and Philosophy 1: 110--27.

Veblen, T. 1898. "Why Is Economics Not an Evolutionary Science?" Quarterly Journal of Economics 12: 373--97.

1900. "The Preconceptions of Economic Science." Quarterly Journal of Economics 13 (1899): 121--50, 396--426: 14: 240--69.

1909. "The Limitations of Marginal Utility." Journal of Political Economy 17: 620--36.

von Neumann, J. and O. Morgenstern. 1947. Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. 2nd. edn. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

von Wright, G. 1971. Explanation and Understanding. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Wallace, N. 1980a. "Integrating Micro and Macroeconomics: An Application to Credit Controls." Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Quarterly Review 4, #4 (Fall): 16--29.

1980b. "The Overlapping Generations Model of Fiat Money," in Kareken and Wallace (1980), pp. 49--82.

Walras, L. 1926. Elements of Pure Economics, tr. W. Jaffe. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1954.

Watkins, J. 1953. "Ideal Types and Historical Explanation," in H. Feigl and M. Brodbeck, eds. Readings in the Philosophy of Science, pp. 723--44. Repr. in Ryan (1973), pp. 82--104.

1968. "Methodological Individualism and Social Tendencies," in M. Brodbeck, ed. Readings in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, pp. 269--79.

1984. Science and Scepticism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Weber, M. 1904. "'Objectivity' in Social Science and Social Policy," in Weber (1949), pp. 49--112.

1949. The Methodology of the Social Sciences, tr. and ed. E. Shils and H. Finch. New York

1975. Roscher and Knies: The Logical Problem of Historical Economics, tr. G. Oakes. New York: Macmillan.

Weintraub, E. 1985a. "Appraising General Equilibrium Analysis." Economics and Philosophy 1: 23--38.

1985b. General Equilibrium Analysis: Studies in Appraisal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1987. "Rosenberg's 'Lakatosian Consolations for Economics': Comment." Economics and Philosophy 3: 139--42.

1988. "The "Neo-Walrasian Program is Empirically Progressive," in de Marchi (1988), pp. 213--30.

1990. Stabilizing Economic Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

West, J. and J. Toonder. 1973. The Case for Astrology. Baltimore: Penguin.

Weyl, H. 1949. Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Whalley, J. 1988. "Lessons from General Equilibrium Models," in H. Aaron, H. Galper, and J. Pechman, eds. Uneasy Compromise: Problems of a Hybrid Income-Consumption Tax. Washington: Brookings Institution, pp. 15--57.

Whewell, W. 1840. The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1967.

White, M. 1956. Toward Reunion in Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wible, J. 1987. "Criticism and the Validity of the Special-Case Interpretation of Friedman's Essay: Reply." Journal of Economic Issues 21: 430--40.

Wilber, C. and R. Harrison. 1978. "The Methodological Basis of Institutional Economics: Pattern Model, Storytelling and Holism." Journal of Economic Issues 12: 61--89.

Williams, M. 1977. Groundless Belief. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Williamson, O. 1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.

Winch, P. 1958. The Idea of a Social Science. London: Routledge.

1964. "Understanding a Primitive Society." American Philosophical Quarterly 1: 307--24.

Winkler, R. 1972. Introduction to Bayesian Inference and Decision. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston.

Winston, G. and R. Teichgraeber, eds. 1988. The Boundaries of Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Winter, S. 1962. "Economic 'Natural Selection' and the Theory of the Firm." Yale Economic Essays 4: 255--72.

Wold, H. 1954. "Causality and Econometrics." Econometrica 22: 162--77.

1960. "A Generalization of Causal Chain Models." Econometrica 28, 443--63.

Worland, S. 1972. "Radical Political Economy as a 'Scientific Revolution.'" Southern Economic Journal 39: 274--84.

Yeager, L. 1969. "Methodenstreit over Demand Curves." Journal of Political Economy 68: 53--64.

Zahar, E. 1983. "The Popper-Lakatos Controversy in the Light of 'Die Beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie.'" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 34: 149--74.

Zytkow, J. 1986. "What Revisions Does Bootstrap Testing Need?" Philosophy of Science 53: 101--9.