5197 Helen C. White Hall
cell phone 354-6120
Philosophy 555 Syllabus
Introduction:This course is concerned with political philosophy, that is, with philosophical questions concerning political organizations -- mainly the state -- and their relations to individuals and non-political organizations. It address the ideals that should govern such organizations, the moral constraints on their actions, the sources and limits of their powers, the justification for their existence. It is concerned with freedoms, rights, equality, solidarity, legitimacy, social welfare, and especially justice. I have chosen to address the philosophical issues by focusing mainly on a selection of influential texts: Plato's Republic, Hobbes' Leviathan, Locke's Second Treatise of Government, Rousseau's Social Contract and Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, Hume's Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, Hegel's Philosophy of Right, some crucial brief texts by Marx, Mill's On Liberty, Utilitarianism, and his Considerations on Representative Government, and Rawls' Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Even though these are just a small sample of the important works of political philosophy of the last 2500 years (from the Western world), we will only be able to read selections from them. Nevertheless, I believe that looking at texts from different periods provides an important perspective that is lost in a contemporary treatment of the issues.
1. The main goal is introduce students to the central problems in political philosophy, the principal solutions that have been offered, and the main arguments bearing on these solutions. The subject is too large for a one-semester course, and we will not do justice to the depth of many of the questions or the subtleties of the answers philosophers have defended.
2. By reading classic texts in political philosophy, we shall see some of the ways in which political philosophy is connected to (a) other areas of philosophy (especially epistemology), (b) empirical knowledge (particularly concerning the social sciences), and (c) historical contingencies.
3. In addition, this course aims to help students to develop their abilities to present and to criticize arguments both in discussion and, in particular, in writing: Every good essay, regardless of the subject matter, is an extended argument for some thesis or conclusion. The only thing special about philosophy essays is the extent to which one focuses upon the logic of the argument. This course aims to help students to write more sharply organized, focused and effective essays. I suspect that for many of you, your writing is not worthy of your thinking, and this course will help you to change that or at least to limit the disparity.
The extent to which these course goals can be achieved is, of course, largely up to you, but it is important that you appreciate what I am trying to accomplish. If you cannot see how any particular lecture or reading assignment relates to the goals of the course, please be sure to ask about it. In abstract matters it is especially important and especially difficult to be clear on what the point is. Keep asking "So what?" Since this course is more concerned with mastering skills than with merely acquiring information, it demands your active participation, and I think that the interest and importance of the questions we will be addressing will reward that participation, too.
Note: Students are encouraged to discuss problems concerning the teaching of this course with the instructor. If students wish to pursue a complaint with someone else, they should contact Jesse Steinberg, Assistant to the Chairperson, Philosophy Department, 5185 H.C. White Hall, 263-5162.
Please try to get hold of these editions so that we can easily discuss the texts together.
Students with disabilities:
I hope to make this course as accessible as is feasible to anyone with a disability. Please let me know as early in the course as possible if you need accommodations in the curriculum, instruction, or assessments in this course to enable you to participate fully. I will attempt to maintain confidentiality of any information you share with me.
See me if you have a special need to use a computer in class. Since they interfere with attention and discussion they are not otherwise to be used.
Course Web Site:
A variety of material, including the syllabus will abe available on the web. Some of it will be on a public web page: http://philosophy.wisc.edu/hausman/555-Spring2013-main.htm. Other resources (such as student access to grades and discussion forums) will be available via the Learn@UW web site, https://learnuw.wisc.edu/
There will be two substantial essays, a midterm, a final examination, homework, and five-minute essays. Your semester grade will depend on the essays (50%), the midterm (15%), the final (25%) and homework (10%). In addition there will be an attendance bonus or penalty depending on your completion or make-ups of five-minute essays.
LECTURES Attendance is technically optional, but the five minute essays provide you with an incentive either to attend regularly or to complete make-up assignmens for missed classes. I welcome questions and comments and hope that we will have extensive and useful discussion.
EXAMS Both the midterm and the final will consist of a mix of short-answer and essay questions. The final will be cumulative but will emphasize material covered after the midterm.
HOMEWORK Before most of the class meetings, I will distribute discussion questions on the material to be covered. Each of you will be assigned a question (or one of a set of questions) to answer in no more than 75 words. For Tuesday classes, answers must be emailed to me by noon on the Monday before. For Thursday classes, answers must be emailed to me by midnight of the Wednesday before. Your homework grade will depend on how many of the homework assignments you complete. Because these are meant as contributions to discussion, late homework assignments receive no credit. Homework should be sent to me as email messages without attachments. Your homeworks will be graded on a pass-fail basis, with the presumption that they will pass unless (a) they don't grasp the question, (b) they make any serious attempt to answer it or (c) they are not clearly and grammatically written. Details about how homework will be graded are explained later in the syllabus.
WARNING!! Philosophy challenges complacency. Its hard to know what the truth is concerning hard questions like the ones we will be addressing this semester.
Course Outline: The following outline is both tentative and ambitious. I will not be surprised if we fall behind and have to make changes.
Tuesday, January 21: Introduction: discussion of the goals, structure and requirements of the course; some introductory words on political philosophy and justiceDan Hausman, “Central Issues in Political Philosophy”
Thursday, January 23: What is political philosophy?
Alexander Moseley, “Political Philosophy”
Conor Friedersdorf, “What Americans Mean When They Say They're Conservative”
Tuesday, January 28: Justice and self-interest
Plato, Republic, Book II (xerox)
Thursday, January 30: What good is justice? On the virtues of the state.
Plato, Republic, Books III and IV excerpts (xerox)
Tuesday, February 4: Concluding words on Plato; the imperfections of government
Plato, Republic, Book VIII and IX (xerox)
Thursday, Feburary 6: Hobbes: Human nature and the state
Hobbes, Leviathan, ch. 1-3, 6, 9-11 (xerox, pp. 1-18)
*Tuesday, February 11: Hobbes: State of Nature and Laws of Nature
Hobbes, Leviathan, ch. 13-16 (xerox, pp. 18-33)Ungraded rough draft of introductory paper due. A deep problem in political philosophy is that the demands of social justice sometimes apparently conflict with individual self-interest. Why, in that case, should individuals behave justly? One way to respond is to maintain that the conflict between self-interest and justice is merely apparent, that in fact the two are always in accord. This is Plato's tactic. What is his argument? Do you find it convincing? Write a short essay presenting Plato's argument and developing and either defending or criticizing what seems to you to be the strongest criticism that one might make of Plato's argument.
Thursday, February 13: Hobbes: On the role of government
Hobbes, Leviathan, ch. 17-21, 26, 28, 30 (several of which are abridged) (xerox pp. 33-54)
*Tuesday, February 18: Locke: State of Nature, Laws of Nature
Locke, Second Treatise, chapters 1 - 5.Introductory Paper Due
Thursday, February 20: Locke: On the nature, origin, and ends of government
Locke, Second Treatise, chapters 6-10.
Tuesday, February 25: Popular sovereignty and the limits of government
Locke, Second Treatise, chapters 11 -19.
Thursday, February 27: Concluding words on Locke
Locke, Second Treatise, review
Tuesday, March 4: Introduction to Rousseau's Discourse
Rousseau, Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, Preface and Part I (pp. 33-60)
Thursday, March 6: Society and the State: Why Is Government Needed?
Rousseau, Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, Part II (pp. 60-81), The Social Contract, Book I, ch. 1-4, pp. 141-47.
Tuesday, March 11: The Social Contract and the Foundations of MoralityRousseau, The Social Contract, Book I, ch. 5-end, and Book II (pp. 147-72).
Thursday, March 13: Midterm examination on Plato, Hobbes, and Locke
Tuesday, March 25: On the limitations of government and individual rights
Rousseau, The Social Contract, review and Book III, ch. 1-4, 14-18, and Book IV, ch. 1 and 2 (pp. 173-80, and 197-207)
Thursday, March 27:Hume: the justification of government and morality
Excerpts from David Hume, An Inquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (xerox)
David Hume, "Of the Original Contract" (xerox)
Tuesday, April 1: Hume and Mill on Justice and Utility
Excerpts from David Hume, An Inquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (xerox)
David Hume, "Of the Original Contract" (xerox)
Mill, Utilitarianism, Chapter 5
Thursday, April 3: Utilitarianism and political philosophy
Mill, Utilitarianism, Chapter 5
Mill, On Liberty, chapter 1
*Tuesday, April 8: Utilitarianism, free speech, individuality and Liberty
Mill, On Liberty, chapters 3 and 4
Term Paper Due
Thursday, April 10: Tuesday, April 8: Mill's principle of liberty and applications
Mill, On Liberty, chapters 4 and 5
Tuesday, April 15: Varieties of liberalism and their applications
Mill, Excerpts from Considerations on Representative Government (xerox reader)
Hegel, Excerpts from The Philosophy of Right (xerox)
Thursday, April 17:Hegel: the state as the realization of reason
Hegel, Excerpts from The Philosophy of Right (xerox)
Tuesday, April 22: Marx: critique of Hegel and of liberal pluralism
Marx, Introduction to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right(xerox)
"On the Jewish Question" (xerox)
Thursday, April 24: Marx: Historical Materialism
Marx, "Preface to a Critique of Political Economy"
Marx, "Theses on Feurbach"
Marx and Engels, Excerpts from The German Ideology
Tuesday, April 29: Modern contractualism
Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Part I (pp. 1-38)
Thursday, May 1: Rawls' Principles of Justice
Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Part II (pp. 39-79)
Tuesday, May 6: More on Rawls' Principles and their contractualist defense
Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Part III (only pp. 80-97).Optional term paper revision due
Thursday, May 8: Summary and Review
Before almost every class I will distribute to you a set of discussion questions. You will then be assigned the task of writing a brief answer to one of them. Your written answer, which should be no more than 75 words in length should be emailed to me by Monday noon for Tuesday classes and by Wednesday midnight for Thursday classes. Please send your responses as email messages without attachments. I shall grade your answers to discussion questions as pass or fail. If you address a question at all thoughtfully and write clearly and grammatically, you can expect to pass.
If you hand in all but three of the homework assignments and pass them all, then you will receive a perfect score of 10 points as your homework grade. If you hand in all the homework assignments, you will receive a bonus of 1.5 points. For each homework that you do not hand in, you will lose .5 point off your semester grade. Because the homework assignments are designed to enrich the ensuing class, no late homework will be accepted.
By distributing to you brief and often provocative questions and giving you five minutes to jot down your thoughts, these assignments encourage more active and thoughtful discussion.
************MISSING FIVE-MINUTE ESSAY MAKE-UP FORM:
Name of student whose notes were used:
Date of the lecture:
Topic of the lecture:
Precis of the lecture and discussion, including careful presentation of any explicitly formulated arguments.
I prefer a format where I lecture, and discussion then develops from your questions. That means that you need to ask questions! And since the material is not easy and I am not always right or clear, you should have lots of questions. Please feel free to ask them! I will regularly distribute discussion questions, which will also be posted on the public web page. Studying these will help you to get more out of the readings and will contribute to better class discussion.
If my office hours, (2:30-3:30 Tuesday and Wednesday) are not convenient, see me after class to arrange another time to meet. My job is to help you to master the skills and material with which this course is concerned, so feel free to come see me.
Use of Email:
Email can be a great convenience, but it can get out of hand. Feel free to email me at firstname.lastname@example.org with any specific questions you have about assignments or requirements. If the question and answer are relevant to others, I will post them on the course discussion page. If you do not want your question posted, you should let me know. Otherwise I will assume that in emailing me, you’ve given me permission to post your question. That way I can serve as many students as possible. Some questions are not appropriate. For example, "Could you please restate the last three lectures?" And some questions are better discussed in person than over email. I’ll do the best I can to be helpful.
A Note on Plagiarism:
Plagiarism is a serious offense, for which there is no excuse. All sources and assistance used in preparing your papers must be precisely and explicitly acknowledged. If you have any questions about what constitutes plagiarism, please come talk with me or with your TA. Ignorance of what constitutes plagiarism is not a defense. It is your responsibility to be sure. The web creates special risks. Cutting and pasting even a few words from a web page or paraphrasing material without a reference constitutes plagiarism. If you are not sure how to refer to something you find on the internet, you can always give the URL. It is generally better to quote than to paraphrase from material on the web, because in the absence of page numbers it can be hard to find passages that are paraphrased rather than quoted. The minimum penalty for plagiarism -- even of just a phrase -- is a zero on the assignment.
In my experience, plagiarism usually happens because it is 3 a.m. on the morning when a paper is due. Your rough draft is going nowhere. You're exhausted and increasingly desperate. And you've come across an obscure web page that says pretty much what you've been trying to say. And ... well you can fill in the rest, perhaps even what happens when you get caught. This is the time to stop and go to bed. Much better to talk with me and get some help, take the mild penalty for not handing the paper in on time, and write a paper that gives you some satisfaction and that doesn't risk expulsion from the University.
The role of the readings in the course:
Unlike some professors, I usually do not usually devote my lectures to the exposition and discussion of the readings, but in this course I will probably pay close attention to passages in the classic texts. So please try to bring the readings with you. The midterm and final examinations will ask not only that you have mastered the material in the lectures but that you be able to relate the arguments in the lectures to the arguments in the readings and to respond intelligently to questions concerning the important arguments in the readings.
Some Hints on Reading Philosophy:
Although you may not be able fully to understand every reading assignment completely, that is the goal. Here are some detailed hints about how to achieve it:
1. Use your highlighter sparingly. It is much more useful to pencil in marginal notes summarizing or querying specific points than to highlight passages. Actively engaging the author is much more valuable than merely trying to assimilate the prose. And if you do highlight, only highlight a small percentage of the text. (There is not much point to highlighting everything, apart from adding color to the page!)
2. The assignments are reasonably short, and you should plan on reading the assignments at least twice. During the first reading you should ask yourself:
a. What is the author's position?
b. What is the general structure of the paper? Is it a collection of separate arguments, or does it aim to make one main argument?
c. What are the author's main assumptions? (Where is the author coming from?)
d. Against whom does the author take him/herself to be arguing? What is the context in which the piece was written?
e. What is the main line of argument (or what are the main lines of argument)?
f. What objections does the author address and how successful is the author in answering them?
g. How does the author's position relate to your views? To what extent does the author reinforce or challenge your views?
h. How do the author's arguments relate to the arguments developed in lecture and in other reading assignments? What criticisms would the author make of arguments developed in lecture or in other readings? To what extent is the position of the author open to criticisms made in lecture or in other readings?
During the second reading of the assignment, you should proceed more slowly and critically. Rather than merely asking questions about what the author's purposes, organization, and argument are, you should try to assess all of these and particularly the author's arguments
General Directions on Writing the Papers:
Style and references:
1. You are expected to give references when you cite detailed claims or arguments made in the readings, and your papers should, where appropriate, show familiarity with relevant materials from the lectures or reading for the course. But you are expected to write essays, not examination answers. So don't introduce irrelevant matters to demonstrate that you have done the course readings. (But you must not ignore relevant supporting arguments and, particularly, objections in the readings.) Cite the readings only when they are relevant. Be sure that your paper is a well organized argument for some clearly articulated thesis.
2. When you quote, paraphrase, or make use of a point made by others, be sure to document the source. I am not particular about what style you use. All that matters is that your references be precise and usable. If you say that Mill says that democracy is for pigs, it should be clear on what page Mill supposedly says that. The easiest way to give a reference is simply to put the source and page number in parenthesis. Papers without clear references (where needed) will be marked down.
3. Papers must be typed or printed double-spaced with wide margins (at least one inch) on all sides, so that there is plenty of room for marginal comments. Be sure to keep copies of your papers. Please do not use binders.
4. Papers for the course must be essentially correct in their "mechanical" aspects-- spelling, punctuation, grammar, typing, and so forth. Papers with more than 3 or 4 errors per page will be marked down by one full letter grade, and if they are very messy, they will not only be penalized, but they will also be returned for correction before they are graded. Obviously spelling and typing are of no intrinsic importance, but messy papers are hard to assess; and it is not unfair to expect you to take responsibility for making sure that your papers are correct in these regards. If you have difficulty with the mechanical features of paper writing, please get someone to proofread your paper before you hand it in.
Hints on Essay Writing:
1. The paper topics are not recipes for writing your essays. You have to decide what it is that you want to maintain in your essays. Do not regard the paper topic as an essay examination question. Although your papers must be on the assigned topic, the point is to write a well-organized and unified argument for some clearly enunciated conclusion.
2. The task of writing a good essay is virtually identical with the task of thinking out a clear thesis or conclusion that you want to defend and then elaborating and defending it. You should be able to say clearly and precisely not only what your paper is about, but also what your paper maintains. Be sure each of your papers has both a thesis--that it asserts something definite--and a logical organization. Once it is clear what you what to show, you will have a criterion to decide what is relevant and the basis for organizing your paper. Can you put your main point clearly in a sentence? Can you say clearly in a sentence what your paper shows or proves? Are all the parts of your paper relevant to your main point? Is the structure of your argument clear? No good essay merely summarizes things you have read and then offers your remarks or points of comparison or differences you noticed. Every acceptable essay integrates its remarks into an argument of its own. Exposition of the views of others should always be part of your argument for your thesis.
3. Note that a well-organized paper is not merely orderly. For example, a paper that argues that Rousseau argues for claims 1, 2, and 3 and that one can defend claim 1 as follows, claim 2 as follows, but not claim 3 is certainly orderly, and it certainly has a thesis. But it would only be well-organized--truly one paper rather than three--if the discussions of the three claims bore some relations to one another and if the paper added up to some unified and substantive statement.
4. Avoid first paragraphs that say things such as, "First I will discuss the views of Locke and Mill. Then I will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Then I will compare their conclusions and formulate my opinion." Passages such as these make it sound as if your argument will begin only on the last page. Exposition of the views of others has to find its place within your argument, not as a preface to your argument. If you think in terms of what you want to establish, and outline your paper in terms of stages in your argument, your essay will be much stronger.
5. Try to say exactly what you mean. Pay careful attention to your language. Sentences such as "Rawls is a mistaken principle" are unacceptably careless. (Rawls, like other human beings, could not possibly be a principle.) Value your words and use them accurately.
6. To help in organizing your thinking, you should attempt to answer the following three questions:
1. What is your thesis--that is, what is it that you are trying to maintain or show or prove? What is your main argument for your thesis?
2. What is the most important objection to or criticism of your thesis that you need to consider? Formulate that objection or criticism as an argument.
3. What is your argument in response to the objection or criticism mentioned in answer to question 2?
If you cannot answer these questions clearly and easily, then there are serious problems with your paper. Do not regard your papers as finished or acceptable until each clearly implies answers to the above questions. (But an essay is not, of course, a list of answers to any set of questions.) Taking the task of answering these questions seriously can make a big difference in the quality of your paper.
Special Considerations in Writing Philosophy Papers:
1. In a political debate, the point is to win, and one consequently tries to make the arguments of one's opponents sound as ridiculous and worthless as possible. In a philosophical debate (or in writing a philosophy essay), in contrast, the objective is to learn the truth. So you should try to make the arguments conflicting with your views as compelling as possible, before you answer them. If there are any objections to what you are maintaining that you cannot answer, then you cannot be sure that you are right. Work hard at trying to see "the other side".
2. Although many sociological and historical facts are relevant to the issues you are addressing in your essays, be careful to keep your focus philosophical. If you aren't sure whether your papers are philosophical or not, check with me.
Some recommendations on how to write badly: (adapted from Martin Hassel http://lacasahassel.net/cv/martin/howto.htm)
1. Begin with a sentence that is clear and direct:
Hobbes defends absolute sovereignty.
2. Change its verbs, adjectives, and adverbs into abstract nouns:
Hobbes offers a defense of the absolutism of sovereignty..
3. Make the sentence passive:
A defense of the absolutism of sovereignty is offered by Hobbes.
4. Use two words where one would do:
A consideration and thoroughgoing defense of the total absolutism of national sovereignty is offered by Hobbes..
5. Use plenty of 'in regard to,' 'as to' and similar terms:
In regard to the total absolutism of national sovereignty in contrast to its limitation a defense is offered by Hobbes.
6. Sprinkle with words that do not add anything:
In regard to the total unqualified absolutism of national governmental sovereignty in considerable contrast to its conceivable limitation an interesting and significant defense is freely offered by Hobbes.
7. Use negatives:
In regard to the total non-limitation of national non-private sovereignty in not inconsiderable contrast to its not-inconceivable limitation a not-uninteresting nor insignificant defense is non-hesitantly offered by Hobbes.
8. Repeat the preceding steps:
How awful can you make the sentence?
Seeking Help :
When working on the final versions of your essays, feel free to come to your teaching assistant or me for help. You do not need to do further research, but you can consult with us if you want references for further reading.
There are some excellent resources on the web for writing philosophy papers. I particularly recommend:
UW-Madison Writer's Handbook This excellent handbook is produced by The Writing Center here. Highly recommended!
www.sfu.ca/philosophy/writing.htm This is brief, clear, and helpful.
http://www.princeton.edu/~jimpryor/general/writing.html Excellent, but much lengthier.
www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/philosophy.html For those who are serious about philosophy.
www.cofc.edu/~portmord/tips.htm Contains lots of references for further study.
A terrific general source on writing is Strunk and White's The Elements of Style. The first edition is available on the web at http://www.bartleby.com/141/
Paper Grading Criteria:
An "A" paper typically has all of the following virtues, although in exceptional cases papers with only five of the six virtues might merit an "A"
A "B" paper has the following virtues:
A "C" paper has at least the following virtues:
A "D" paper